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Arnold Court

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Arnold Court

Abstract

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Arnold Court

Maximum temperatures on very hot days in hot-desert areas are similar in duration and time of occurrence to maximums on cooler days: they occur around three hours after noon, and the temperature (as measured to the nearest whole degree by standard thermometers) remains at the maximum for about two hours. These findings are based on analysis of the differences between hourly temperatures and the maximum of the day, on days when the maximum was 110°F or hotter during two summers in two desert areas of the world.

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Arnold Court

Thunderstorms occur 2 to 5 times a year, chiefly in winter, on the coast of northern California, and 10 to 15 times a year, chiefly in summer, in the Great Basin. In the intervening Central Valley, 5 to 10 thunderstorms occur per year, mostly in late spring; a secondary maximum in early autumn is particularly important in starting forest fires. Correlations between numbers of days with thunderstorms at adjacent Weather Bureau stations are quite low; the highest found is 0.70 for summer thunderstorm days at Sacramento and Blue Canyon, 60 mi apart.

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Arnold Court

The rate of heat removal from the human body by wind and low temperature was termed Wind Chill by Siple and expressed by an empirical formula. This paper discusses the formula critically, pointing out that this measure of the convective heat loss may be less than three-quarters of the total heat lost by the body. Siple's formula is compared with those of others, and the use of the formula is discussed.

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Arnold Court
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Arnold Court

Tropopause disappearance during the final months of the Antarctic winter, and the large annual range (35°C at 15 km.) of stratosphere temperatures, as revealed by 190 radiosonde ascents during 1940–1 at Littie America III, the West Base of the U. S. Antarctic Service, are not paralleled in the Northern Hemisphere and indicate that the Antarctic atmosphere has little exchange of air with the rest of the world.

Other evidences of divorce from the world circulation are the coldness of the Antarctic troposphere compared to the Arctic, lower oxygen content of the Antarctic air than that of the rest of the world, asymmetry in world ozone distribution, and the general low pressure prevailing throughout the Antarctic.

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Arnold Court

Abstract

Standard deviations of distributions of hourly temperatures at forty places in the United States during January and July (1935–1939) show area and seasonal changes differing from those of the mean daily range. Skewness is negative in January, positive in July. Excess is erratic but, combined with standard deviation, permits identification of three types of temperature distribution, each with definite geographic arrangement. Differences among distributions are explained by the differing amounts of water present, chiefly in liquid form as clouds, open bodies, and in the ground.

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ARNOLD COURT

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Percentage frequencies of hourly temperatures above certain values from 40° to 110° F., by 5° intervals, are presented for 102 places in the United States in summer (June-July-August). The frequencies are based on hourly readings, generally at airways weather stations, during five years 1935–1939. Since average summer temperatures during this period were somewhat warmer than long-term “normals,” the resulting tabulation is considered applicable to a “typical warm summer” such that only about 15 summers per century would be warmer. The percentages are presented in a table, and those for temperatures above 85° (30° C. or higher) are shown on a map to indicate the regions where refrigerated storage is desirable for chocolate candy, which turns white (“graying” or “blooming”) as soon as its temperature exceeds 85°.

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Arnold Court

Abstract

No abstract available.

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