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R. A. Hanel
,
W. R. Bandeen
, and
B. J. Conrath

Abstract

Horizon sensors are essential elements in the orientation systems of many space vehicles and satellites. Their design and an evaluation of their capabilities and limitations requires a knowledge of the spectral radiance emitted by the Earth. This report investigates the discontinuity between the surface, the atmosphere, and outer space for various latitudinal, seasonal, climatic, and meteorological conditions. Calculations are carried out for the following five spectral intervals—the water vapor band from 6.33 to 6.85 microns, the ozone band from 8.9 to 10.1 microns, the atmospheric window from 10.75 to 11.75 microns, the carbon dioxide band from 14 to 16 microns, and finally the rotational water vapor band from 21 to 125 microns. The superior properties of the carbon dioxide band and the rotational water vapor region for horizon sensor purposes are shown.

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W. R. Bandeen
,
B. J. Conrath
, and
R. A. Hanel

Abstract

No abstract available.

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C. Prabhakara
,
V. V. Salomonson
,
B. J. Conrath
,
J. Sterania
, and
L. J. Allison

Abstract

Remote soundings of total ozone made by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer onboard the Nimbus 3 satellite, during June and July 1969, show the presence of ozone minima over northeast India and north Africa where summertime upper air high pressure systems exist. The easterly jet stream is revealed by ozone maxima observed along its path over southeast Asia and Africa during the summer monsoon period.

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C. Prabhakara
,
B. J. Conrath
,
R. A. Hanel
, and
E. J. Williamson

Abstract

Spectral measurements made by a high resolution Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) aboard the Nimbus III satellite are used to deduce, remotely, atmospheric ozone content and distribution. This indirect method depends on the emission and absorption properties of ozone in the 9.6 μ region, as well as some gross climatological properties of the vertical ozone profile.

Several IRIS spectra have been analyzed and the corresponding vertical ozone distributions are determined. A comparison of ozone soundings made by chemical sounders with those derived from the satellite data shows relatively good agreement of gross features. The total ozone estimated from the derived profiles compares well with the measured total.

This study shows that the atmospheric total ozone content can be determined, with the help of IRIS spectra, over a large part of the globe, with an accuracy of about ±6% compared to values derived from Dobson measurements.

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W. Nordberg
,
W. R. Bandeen
,
B. J. Conrath
,
V. Kunde
, and
I. Persano

Abstract

Three simple and typical cases of radiation fluxes measured by the TIROS III meteorological satellite are presented and discussed. These cases deal with emitted earth radiation received in three infrared channels and reflected solar radiation received in two visible channels over the tropical Atlantic, the eastern United States, and the North African desert. Each of the measurements is accompanied by results from a wide-field radiometer and photographs from TV cameras flown in the same satellite. The cases over the Atlantic Ocean and the African desert were in almost cloudless sides, while the case over the United States included regions ranging from heavily clouded to clear. Results show that the measurements from the various instruments and in the various channels are internally consistent. Maximum albedo values over the overcast arms were determined to be approximately 55 per cent. Over the ocean, albedos were near 7 per cent, and over land and clear skies the albedo varied from about 15 per cent over heavy vegetation to about 30 per cent over the desert. From these measurements total outgoing energy fluxes in the infrared were computed to be as high as 340 watts per square meter over the desert and as low as 190 watts per square meter over the cloudy areas. With the exception of the measurements made over the desert, results in the atmospheric window channel (7.5 to 13.5 microns) show substantial absorption, probably due to water vapor.

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