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D. M. Murphy and B. L. Gary

Abstract

Remote sensing measurements of temperature fluctuations on isentropic surfaces, as well as in situ measurements, are used to show that even high-resolution trajectory calculations seriously underestimate the rate of change of temperature experienced by air parcels. Rapid temperature fluctuations will affect the nucleation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) droplets and could promote the formation of metastable phases in PSCS. Mesoscale temperature fluctuations are large enough to produce significant departures from equilibrium in established PSCS. The large cooling rates experienced by air parcels have important implications for denitrification and dehydration: nearly all condensation nuclei should be activated when a PSC is first formed and mass must be redistributed to larger aerosols during the evolution of a PSC if denitrification is to occur.

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Paul B. Bogner, Gary M. Barnes, and James L. Franklin

Abstract

One hundred and thirty Omega dropwindsondes deployed within 500-km radius of the eye of six North Atlantic hurricanes are used to determine the magnitudes and trends in convective available potential energy, and 10–1500-m and 0–6-km shear of the horizontal wind as a function of radius, quadrant, and hurricane intensity.

The moist convective instability found at large radii (400–500 km) decreases to near neutral stability by 75 km from the eyewall. Vertical shears increase as radius decreases, but maximum shear values are only one-half of those found over land. Scatter for both the conditional instability and the shear is influenced chiefly by hurricane intensity, but proximity to reflectivity features does modulate the pattern. The ratio of the conditional instability to the shear (bulk Richardson number) indicates that supercell formation is favored within 250 km of the circulation center, but helicity values are below the threshold to support strong waterspouts.

The difference between these oceanic observations and those made over land by other researchers is evidence for significant modification of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind in a hurricane at landfall.

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Paul J. Neiman, Benjamin J. Moore, Allen B. White, Gary A. Wick, Joshua Aikins, Darren L. Jackson, J. Ryan Spackman, and F. Martin Ralph

Abstract

The wettest period during the CalWater-2014 winter field campaign occurred with a long-lived, intense atmospheric river (AR) that impacted California on 7–10 February. The AR was maintained in conjunction with the development and propagation of three successive mesoscale frontal waves. Based on Lagrangian trajectory analysis, moist air of tropical origin was tapped by the AR and was subsequently transported into California. Widespread heavy precipitation (200–400 mm) fell across the coastal mountain ranges northwest of San Francisco and across the northern Sierra Nevada, although only modest flooding ensued due to anomalously dry antecedent conditions. A NOAA G-IV aircraft flew through two of the frontal waves in the AR environment offshore during a ~24-h period. Parallel dropsonde curtains documented key three-dimensional thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics across the AR and the frontal waves prior to landfall. The AR characteristics varied, depending on the location of the cross section through the frontal waves. A newly implemented tail-mounted Doppler radar on the G-IV simultaneously captured coherent precipitation features. Along the coast, a 449-MHz wind profiler and collocated global positioning system (GPS) receiver documented prolonged AR conditions linked to the propagation of the three frontal waves and highlighted the orographic character of the coastal-mountain rainfall with the waves’ landfall. A vertically pointing S-PROF radar in the coastal mountains provided detailed information on the bulk microphysical characteristics of the rainfall. Farther inland, a pair of 915-MHz wind profilers and GPS receivers quantified the orographic precipitation forcing as the AR ascended the Sierra Nevada, and as the terrain-induced Sierra barrier jet ascended the northern terminus of California’s Central Valley.

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Molly Baringer, Mariana B. Bif, Tim Boyer, Seth M. Bushinsky, Brendan R. Carter, Ivona Cetinić, Don P. Chambers, Lijing Cheng, Sanai Chiba, Minhan Dai, Catia M. Domingues, Shenfu Dong, Andrea J. Fassbender, Richard A. Feely, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Bryan A. Franz, John Gilson, Gustavo Goni, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Boyin Huang, Masayoshi Ishii, Svetlana Jevrejeva, William E. Johns, Gregory C. Johnson, Kenneth S. Johnson, John Kennedy, Marion Kersalé, Rachel E. Killick, Peter Landschützer, Matthias Lankhorst, Tong Lee, Eric Leuliette, Feili Li, Eric Lindstrom, Ricardo Locarnini, Susan Lozier, John M. Lyman, John J. Marra, Christopher S. Meinen, Mark A. Merrifield, Gary T. Mitchum, Ben Moat, Didier Monselesan, R. Steven Nerem, Renellys C. Perez, Sarah G. Purkey, Darren Rayner, James Reagan, Nicholas Rome, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, Claudia Schmid, Joel P. Scott, Uwe Send, David A. Siegel, David A. Smeed, Sabrina Speich, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., William Sweet, Yuichiro Takeshita, Philip R. Thompson, Joaquin A. Triñanes, Martin Visbeck, Denis L. Volkov, Rik Wanninkhof, Robert A. Weller, Toby K. Westberry, Matthew J. Widlansky, Susan E. Wijffels, Anne C. Wilber, Lisan Yu, Weidong Yu, and Huai-Min Zhang
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