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Martin K. Hill, Barbara J. Brooks, Sarah J. Norris, Michael H. Smith, Ian M. Brooks, and Gerrit de Leeuw

Abstract

The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) is an optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring size-resolved particle concentrations in 16 user-defined size bins spanning diameters in the range 0.24 < D < 18.5 μm at a rate of 10 Hz. The combination of its compact nature and lightweight and robust build allows for deployment in environments and locations where the use of the larger, heavier, more traditional instrumentation would prove awkward or impossible. The high temporal resolution means it is particularly suited to direct measurements of aerosol fluxes via the eddy covariance technique. CLASP has been through an extended evolutionary development. This has resulted in an instrument whose performance characteristics are well established.

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Ewan J. O’Connor, Anthony J. Illingworth, Ian M. Brooks, Christopher D. Westbrook, Robin J. Hogan, Fay Davies, and Barbara J. Brooks

Abstract

A method of estimating dissipation rates from a vertically pointing Doppler lidar with high temporal and spatial resolution has been evaluated by comparison with independent measurements derived from a balloon-borne sonic anemometer. This method utilizes the variance of the mean Doppler velocity from a number of sequential samples and requires an estimate of the horizontal wind speed. The noise contribution to the variance can be estimated from the observed signal-to-noise ratio and removed where appropriate. The relative size of the noise variance to the observed variance provides a measure of the confidence in the retrieval. Comparison with in situ dissipation rates derived from the balloon-borne sonic anemometer reveal that this particular Doppler lidar is capable of retrieving dissipation rates over a range of at least three orders of magnitude.

This method is most suitable for retrieval of dissipation rates within the convective well-mixed boundary layer where the scales of motion that the Doppler lidar probes remain well within the inertial subrange. Caution must be applied when estimating dissipation rates in more quiescent conditions. For the particular Doppler lidar described here, the selection of suitably short integration times will permit this method to be applicable in such situations but at the expense of accuracy in the Doppler velocity estimates. The two case studies presented here suggest that, with profiles every 4 s, reliable estimates of ε can be derived to within at least an order of magnitude throughout almost all of the lowest 2 km and, in the convective boundary layer, to within 50%. Increasing the integration time for individual profiles to 30 s can improve the accuracy substantially but potentially confines retrievals to within the convective boundary layer. Therefore, optimization of certain instrument parameters may be required for specific implementations.

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Kathleen K. Crahan, Dean A. Hegg, David S. Covert, Haflidi Jonsson, Jeffrey S. Reid, Djamal Khelif, and Barbara J. Brooks

Abstract

Although the importance of the aerosol contribution to the global radiative budget has been recognized, the forcings of aerosols in general, and specifically the role of the organic component in these forcings, still contain large uncertainties. In an attempt to better understand the relationship between the background forcings of aerosols and their chemical speciation, marine air samples were collected off the windward coast of Oahu, Hawaii, during the Rough Evaporation Duct project (RED) using filters mounted on both the Twin Otter aircraft and the Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) research platform. Laboratory analysis revealed a total of 17 species, including 4 carboxylic acids and 2 carbohydrates that accounted for 74% ± 20% of the mass gain observed on the shipboard filters, suggesting a possible significant unresolved organic component. The results were correlated with in situ measurements of particle light scattering (σ sp) at 550 nm and with aerosol hygroscopicities. Principal component analysis revealed a small but ubiquitous pollution component affecting the σ sp and aerosol hygroscopicity of the remote marine air. The Princeton Organic-Electrolyte Model (POEM) was used to predict the growth factor of the aerosols based upon the chemical composition. This output, coupled with measured aerosol size distributions, was used to attempt to reproduce the observed σ sp. It was found that while the POEM model was able to reproduce the expected trends when the organic component of the aerosol was varied, due to large uncertainties especially in the aerosol sizing measurements, the σ sp predicted by the POEM model was consistently higher than observed.

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Elizabeth E. Ebert, Laurence J. Wilson, Barbara G. Brown, Pertti Nurmi, Harold E. Brooks, John Bally, and Matthias Jaeneke

Abstract

The verification phase of the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) Sydney 2000 Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) was intended to measure the skill of the participating nowcast algorithms in predicting the location of convection, rainfall rate and occurrence, wind speed and direction, severe thunderstorm wind gusts, and hail location and size. An additional question of interest was whether forecasters could improve the quality of the nowcasts compared to the FDP products alone.

The nowcasts were verified using a variety of statistical techniques. Observational data came from radar reflectivity and rainfall analyses, a network of rain gauges, and human (spotter) observations. The verification results showed that the cell tracking algorithms predicted the location of the strongest cells with a mean error of about 15–30 km for a 1-h forecast, and were usually more accurate than an extrapolation (Lagrangian persistence) forecast. Mean location errors for the area tracking schemes were on the order of 20 km.

Almost all of the algorithms successfully predicted the frequency of rain throughout the forecast period, although most underestimated the frequency of high rain rates. The skill in predicting rain occurrence decreased very quickly into the forecast period. In particular, the algorithms could not predict the precise location of heavy rain beyond the first 10–20 min. Using radar analyses as verification, the algorithms' spatial forecasts were consistently more skillful than simple persistence. However, when verified against rain gauge observations at point locations, the algorithms had difficulty beating persistence, mainly due to differences in spatial and temporal resolution.

Only one algorithm attempted to forecast gust fronts. The results for a limited sample showed a mean absolute error of 7 km h−1 and mean bias of 3 km h−1 in the speed of the gust fronts during the FDP. The errors in sea-breeze front forecasts were half as large, with essentially no bias. Verification of the hail associated with the 3 November tornadic storm showed that the two algorithms that estimated hail size and occurrence successfully diagnosed the onset and cessation of the hail to within 30 min of the reported sightings. The time evolution of hail size was reasonably well captured by the algorithms, and the predicted mean and maximum hail diameters were consistent with the observations.

The Thunderstorm Interactive Forecast System (TIFS) allowed forecasters to modify the output of the cell tracking nowcasts, primarily using it to remove cells that were insignificant or diagnosed with incorrect motion. This manual filtering resulted in markedly reduced mean cell position errors when compared to the unfiltered forecasts. However, when forecasters attempted to adjust the storm tracks for a small number of well-defined intense cells, the position errors increased slightly, suggesting that in such cases the objective guidance is probably the best estimate of storm motion.

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Georgia Sotiropoulou, Michael Tjernström, Joseph Sedlar, Peggy Achtert, Barbara J. Brooks, Ian M. Brooks, P. Ola G. Persson, John Prytherch, Dominic J. Salisbury, Matthew D. Shupe, Paul E. Johnston, and Dan Wolfe

Abstract

The Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) was conducted during summer and early autumn 2014, providing a detailed view of the seasonal transition from ice melt into freeze-up. Measurements were taken over both ice-free and ice-covered surfaces near the ice edge, offering insight into the role of the surface state in shaping the atmospheric conditions. The initiation of the autumn freeze-up was related to a change in air mass, rather than to changes in solar radiation alone; the lower atmosphere cooled abruptly, leading to a surface heat loss. During melt season, strong surface inversions persisted over the ice, while elevated inversions were more frequent over open water. These differences disappeared during autumn freeze-up, when elevated inversions persisted over both ice-free and ice-covered conditions. These results are in contrast to previous studies that found a well-mixed boundary layer persisting in summer and an increased frequency of surface-based inversions in autumn, suggesting that knowledge derived from measurements taken within the pan-Arctic area and on the central ice pack does not necessarily apply closer to the ice edge. This study offers an insight into the atmospheric processes that occur during a crucial period of the year; understanding and accurately modeling these processes is essential for the improvement of ice-extent predictions and future Arctic climate projections.

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Peter Knippertz, Hugh Coe, J. Christine Chiu, Mat J. Evans, Andreas H. Fink, Norbert Kalthoff, Catherine Liousse, Celine Mari, Richard P. Allan, Barbara Brooks, Sylvester Danour, Cyrille Flamant, Oluwagbemiga O. Jegede, Fabienne Lohou, and John H. Marsham

Abstract

Massive economic and population growth, and urbanization are expected to lead to a tripling of anthropogenic emissions in southern West Africa (SWA) between 2000 and 2030. However, the impacts of this on human health, ecosystems, food security, and the regional climate are largely unknown. An integrated assessment is challenging due to (a) a superposition of regional effects with global climate change; (b) a strong dependence on the variable West African monsoon; (c) incomplete scientific understanding of interactions between emissions, clouds, radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations; and (d) a lack of observations. This article provides an overview of the DACCIWA (Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project. DACCIWA will conduct extensive fieldwork in SWA to collect high-quality observations, spanning the entire process chain from surface-based natural and anthropogenic emissions to impacts on health, ecosystems, and climate. Combining the resulting benchmark dataset with a wide range of modeling activities will allow (a) assessment of relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes; (b) improvement of the monitoring of climate and atmospheric composition from space; and (c) development of the next generation of weather and climate models capable of representing coupled cloud–aerosol interactions. The latter will ultimately contribute to reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. DACCIWA collaborates closely with operational centers, international programs, policymakers, and users to actively guide sustainable future planning for West Africa. It is hoped that some of DACCIWA’s scientific findings and technical developments will be applicable to other monsoon regions.

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Steven V. Vasiloff, Dong-Jun Seo, Kenneth W. Howard, Jian Zhang, David H. Kitzmiller, Mary G. Mullusky, Witold F. Krajewski, Edward A. Brandes, Robert M. Rabin, Daniel S. Berkowitz, Harold E. Brooks, John A. McGinley, Robert J. Kuligowski, and Barbara G. Brown

Accurate quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) and very short term quantitative precipitation forecasts (VSTQPF) are critical to accurate monitoring and prediction of water-related hazards and water resources. While tremendous progress has been made in the last quarter-century in many areas of QPE and VSTQPF, significant gaps continue to exist in both knowledge and capabilities that are necessary to produce accurate high-resolution precipitation estimates at the national scale for a wide spectrum of users. Toward this goal, a national next-generation QPE and VSTQPF (Q2) workshop was held in Norman, Oklahoma, on 28–30 June 2005. Scientists, operational forecasters, water managers, and stakeholders from public and private sectors, including academia, presented and discussed a broad range of precipitation and forecasting topics and issues, and developed a list of science focus areas. To meet the nation's needs for the precipitation information effectively, the authors herein propose a community-wide integrated approach for precipitation information that fully capitalizes on recent advances in science and technology, and leverages the wide range of expertise and experience that exists in the research and operational communities. The concepts and recommendations from the workshop form the Q2 science plan and a suggested path to operations. Implementation of these concepts is expected to improve river forecasts and flood and flash flood watches and warnings, and to enhance various hydrologic and hydrometeorological services for a wide range of users and customers. In support of this initiative, the National Mosaic and Q2 (NMQ) system is being developed at the National Severe Storms Laboratory to serve as a community test bed for QPE and VSTQPF research and to facilitate the transition to operations of research applications. The NMQ system provides a real-time, around-the-clock data infusion and applications development and evaluation environment, and thus offers a community-wide platform for development and testing of advances in the focus areas.

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David C. Leon, Jeffrey R. French, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Alan M. Blyth, Steven J. Abel, Susan Ballard, Andrew Barrett, Lindsay J. Bennett, Keith Bower, Barbara Brooks, Phil Brown, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Thomas Choularton, Peter Clark, Chris Collier, Jonathan Crosier, Zhiqiang Cui, Seonaid Dey, David Dufton, Chloe Eagle, Michael J. Flynn, Martin Gallagher, Carol Halliwell, Kirsty Hanley, Lee Hawkness-Smith, Yahui Huang, Graeme Kelly, Malcolm Kitchen, Alexei Korolev, Humphrey Lean, Zixia Liu, John Marsham, Daniel Moser, John Nicol, Emily G. Norton, David Plummer, Jeremy Price, Hugo Ricketts, Nigel Roberts, Phil D. Rosenberg, David Simonin, Jonathan W. Taylor, Robert Warren, Paul I. Williams, and Gillian Young

Abstract

The Convective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) was a joint U.K.–U.S. field campaign held during the summer of 2013 in the southwest peninsula of England, designed to study convective clouds that produce heavy rain leading to flash floods. The clouds form along convergence lines that develop regularly as a result of the topography. Major flash floods have occurred in the past, most famously at Boscastle in 2004. It has been suggested that much of the rain was produced by warm rain processes, similar to some flash floods that have occurred in the United States. The overarching goal of COPE is to improve quantitative convective precipitation forecasting by understanding the interactions of the cloud microphysics and dynamics and thereby to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill for forecasts of flash floods. Two research aircraft, the University of Wyoming King Air and the U.K. BAe 146, obtained detailed in situ and remote sensing measurements in, around, and below storms on several days. A new fast-scanning X-band dual-polarization Doppler radar made 360° volume scans over 10 elevation angles approximately every 5 min and was augmented by two Met Office C-band radars and the Chilbolton S-band radar. Detailed aerosol measurements were made on the aircraft and on the ground. This paper i) provides an overview of the COPE field campaign and the resulting dataset, ii) presents examples of heavy convective rainfall in clouds containing ice and also in relatively shallow clouds through the warm rain process alone, and iii) explains how COPE data will be used to improve high-resolution NWP models for operational use.

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Ian M. Brooks, Margaret J. Yelland, Robert C. Upstill-Goddard, Philip D. Nightingale, Steve Archer, Eric d'Asaro, Rachael Beale, Cory Beatty, Byron Blomquist, A. Anthony Bloom, Barbara J. Brooks, John Cluderay, David Coles, John Dacey, Michael Degrandpre, Jo Dixon, William M. Drennan, Joseph Gabriele, Laura Goldson, Nick Hardman-Mountford, Martin K. Hill, Matt Horn, Ping-Chang Hsueh, Barry Huebert, Gerrit De Leeuw, Timothy G. Leighton, Malcolm Liddicoat, Justin J. N. Lingard, Craig Mcneil, James B. Mcquaid, Ben I. Moat, Gerald Moore, Craig Neill, Sarah J. Norris, Simon O'Doherty, Robin W. Pascal, John Prytherch, Mike Rebozo, Erik Sahlee, Matt Salter, Ute Schuster, Ingunn Skjelvan, Hans Slagter, Michael H. Smith, Paul D. Smith, Meric Srokosz, John A. Stephens, Peter K. Taylor, Maciej Telszewski, Roisin Walsh, Brian Ward, David K. Woolf, Dickon Young, and Henk Zemmelink

Abstract

No Abstract available.

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Ian M. Brooks, Margaret J. Yelland, Robert C. Upstill-Goddard, Philip D. Nightingale, Steve Archer, Eric d'Asaro, Rachael Beale, Cory Beatty, Byron Blomquist, A. Anthony Bloom, Barbara J. Brooks, John Cluderay, David Coles, John Dacey, Michael DeGrandpre, Jo Dixon, William M. Drennan, Joseph Gabriele, Laura Goldson, Nick Hardman-Mountford, Martin K. Hill, Matt Horn, Ping-Chang Hsueh, Barry Huebert, Gerrit de Leeuw, Timothy G. Leighton, Malcolm Liddicoat, Justin J. N. Lingard, Craig McNeil, James B. McQuaid, Ben I. Moat, Gerald Moore, Craig Neill, Sarah J. Norris, Simon O'Doherty, Robin W. Pascal, John Prytherch, Mike Rebozo, Erik Sahlee, Matt Salter, Ute Schuster, Ingunn Skjelvan, Hans Slagter, Michael H. Smith, Paul D. Smith, Meric Srokosz, John A. Stephens, Peter K. Taylor, Maciej Telszewski, Roisin Walsh, Brian Ward, David K. Woolf, Dickon Young, and Henk Zemmelink

As part of the U.K. contribution to the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study, a series of three related projects—DOGEE, SEASAW, and HiWASE—undertook experimental studies of the processes controlling the physical exchange of gases and sea spray aerosol at the sea surface. The studies share a common goal: to reduce the high degree of uncertainty in current parameterization schemes. The wide variety of measurements made during the studies, which incorporated tracer and surfactant release experiments, included direct eddy correlation fluxes, detailed wave spectra, wind history, photographic retrievals of whitecap fraction, aerosolsize spectra and composition, surfactant concentration, and bubble populations in the ocean mixed layer. Measurements were made during three cruises in the northeast Atlantic on the RRS Discovery during 2006 and 2007; a fourth campaign has been making continuous measurements on the Norwegian weather ship Polarfront since September 2006. This paper provides an overview of the three projects and some of the highlights of the measurement campaigns.

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