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  • Author or Editor: Brian D. Dushaw x
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Brian D. Dushaw

Abstract

Techniques are developed for using line-integral tomography data to estimate the spectra, maps, and energy of low-mode internal-tide radiation; the extension of these techniques to other phenomena is obvious. Sparse arrays of line integrals over paths 300–1000 km long can generally determine the direction of propagation of semidiurnal radiation well, but the magnitude of the wavenumbers is ambiguous because of sidelobes in the spectrum. Both wavenumber magnitude and direction can generally be determined for diurnal internal-tide radiation. Spectra for the semidiurnal and diurnal internal tides are estimated for the region of the Atlantic Ocean between Puerto Rico and Bermuda using data obtained during the Acoustic Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (AMODE) in 1991–92. Simulations of semidiurnal internal-tide radiation, consisting of wave packets or highly irregular wave crests, are used to show that the line-integral data provide better mapping resolution than point data, but the best results are, of course, obtained when both types of data are used. As a practical example of the formalism of these simulations, maps of M 2 internal-tide variability are derived from the AMODE tomography data. Because the inverse problem is underdetermined with the sparse arrays that are deployed in the ocean, the inverse solution generally underestimates the energy of the radiative field. In the simulations employed here, the energy is underestimated by 33% ± 10%, but the exact amount by which the energy is underestimated is dependent on the assumptions made for the simulations, such as the array geometry and the nature of the tidal variability.

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Brian D. Dushaw

Abstract

An objective mapping exercise simulating observations of temperature in the North Atlantic Ocean was used to assess the resolution capabilities of ocean acoustic tomography in combination with Argo floats. A set of basis functions for a basinwide area was obtained from a singular value decomposition of a covariance derived from an ocean state estimate. As demonstrated by the formal uncertainty estimates from the objective maps, Argo and tomography are complementary measurements. In several examples, each separately obtained uncertainty for determining large-scale monthly average temperature of about 50% of prior (resolved 75% of variance), while when both data were employed, uncertainties were reduced to about 25% of prior (resolved 94% of variance). Possible tomography configurations range from arrays that span specific regions to line arrays that supplement existing observations to arrays that span the Atlantic basin. A basinwide array consisting of two acoustic sources and seven receivers can be used to significantly reduce the uncertainties of estimated broad-scale temperature. An optimal observing system study would comprise simulated measurements in combination with data assimilation techniques and numerical ocean modeling. This objective map study, however, showed that the addition of tomography to the existing observing system could substantially reduce the uncertainties for estimated large-scale temperature. To the extent that tomography offers a 50% reduction in uncertainty at a fraction of the cost of the Argo program, it is a cost-effective contribution to the ocean observing system.

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Brian D. Dushaw
and
Hanne Sagen

Abstract

Estimation of the exchange of seawater of various properties between the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans presents a challenging observational problem. The strong current systems within Fram Strait induce recirculations and a turbulent ocean environment dominated by mesoscale variations of 4–10-km scale. By employing a simple parameterized model for mesoscale variability within Fram Strait, the authors examine the ability of a line array of closely spaced moorings and an acoustic tomography line to measure the average sound speed, a proxy variable for ocean temperature or heat content. Objective maps are employed to quantify the uncertainties resulting from the different measurement approaches. While measurements by a mooring line and tomography result in similar uncertainties in estimations of range- and depth-averaged sound speed, the combination of the two approaches gives uncertainties 3 times smaller. The two measurements are sufficiently different as to be complementary; one measurement provides resolution for the aspects of the temperature section that the other misses. The parameterized model and its assumptions as to the magnitudes and scales of variability were tested by application to a hydrographic section across Fram Strait measured in 2011. This study supports the deployment of the 2013–16 Arctic Ocean under Melting Ice (UNDER-ICE) network of tomographic transceivers spanning the ongoing moored array line across Fram Strait. Optimal estimation for this ocean environment may require combining disparate data types as constraints on a numerical ocean model using data assimilation.

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Brian D. Dushaw
,
Peter F. Worcester
,
Bruce D. Cornuelle
, and
Bruce M. Howe

Abstract

The evolution of the heat content in the central North Pacific Ocean during summer 1987 has been measured using acoustic transmissions between transceivers deployed in a triangle approximately 1000 km on a side. The acoustically determined heat contents of the source-receiver sections agree with heat contents computed from CTD and XBT data obtained during May and September 1987. The accuracy of acoustical measurements of range-averaged heat content is comparable to estimates from CTD and XBT data. Transmissions at four-day intervals allow the continuous observation of heat content and show that it varies on time scales of weeks or less. The magnitude of these variations is of the same order as that observed from XBT sections, which are only occasionally available. Ocean–atmosphere heat exchange from bulk formulas accounts for only about half of the observed heat content increase from May through September 1987, indicating that advective effects are important in the region. The excess heat change is calculated to be of order 50–150 W m−2. The advective component of the near-surface heat budget is roughly in phase with the surface flux component.

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Brian D. Dushaw
,
Bruce M. Howe
,
Bruce D. Cornuelle
,
Peter F. Worcester
, and
Douglas S. Luther

Abstract

Travel times of reciprocal 1000-km range acoustic transmissions, determined from the 1987 Reciprocal Tomography Experiment, are used to study barotropic tidal currents and a large-scale, coherent baroclinic tide in the central North Pacific Ocean. The difference in reciprocal travel times determines the tidal currents, while the sum of reciprocal travel times determines the baroclinic tide displacement of isotachs (or equivalently, isotherms). The barotropic tidal current accounts for 90% of the observed differential travel time variance. The measured harmonic constants of the eight major tidal constituents of the barotropic tide and the constants determined from current meter measurements agree well with the empirical–numerical tidal models of Schwiderski and Cartwright et al. The amplitudes and phases of the first-mode baroclinic tide determined from sum travel times agree with those determined from moored thermistors and current meters. The baroclinic tidal signals are consistent with a large-scale, phase-locked internal tide, which apparently has propagated northward over 2000 km from the Hawaiian Ridge. The amplitude, phase, and polarization of the first-mode M2 baroclinic tidal displacement and current are consistent with a northward propagating internal tide. The ratio of baroclinic energy to barotropic energy determined using the range-averaging acoustic transmissions is about 8%, while a ratio of 26% was determined from the point measurements. The large-scale, internal tide energy flux, presumed northward, is estimated to be about 180 W m−1.

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Luc Rainville
,
T. M. Shaun Johnston
,
Glenn S. Carter
,
Mark A. Merrifield
,
Robert Pinkel
,
Peter F. Worcester
, and
Brian D. Dushaw

Abstract

Most of the M 2 internal tide energy generated at the Hawaiian Ridge radiates away in modes 1 and 2, but direct observation of these propagating waves is complicated by the complexity of the bathymetry at the generation region and by the presence of interference patterns. Observations from satellite altimetry, a tomographic array, and the R/P FLIP taken during the Farfield Program of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are found to be in good agreement with the output of a high-resolution primitive equation model, simulating the generation and propagation of internal tides. The model shows that different modes are generated with different amplitudes along complex topography. Multiple sources produce internal tides that sum constructively and destructively as they propagate. The major generation sites can be identified using a simplified 2D idealized knife-edge ridge model. Four line sources located on the Hawaiian Ridge reproduce the interference pattern of sea surface height and energy flux density fields from the numerical model for modes 1 and 2. Waves from multiple sources and their interference pattern have to be taken into account to correctly interpret in situ observations and satellite altimetry.

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