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Matthew H. Alford, Tim McGinnis, and Bruce M. Howe

Abstract

This paper describes a system for providing power and communications to moored profiling vehicles. A McLane Moored Profiler (MP) was equipped with a rechargeable battery pack and an inductive charging system to allow it to move periodically to a charging dock at the top of a subsurface mooring. Power was provided from a large bank of alkaline batteries housed in two 0.94-m steel spheres. Data were transferred inductively from the profiler to a mooring controller, and from there back to shore via radio and Iridium satellite modems housed in a small surface communications float on an “L” tether. An acoustic modem provided backup communications to a nearby ship in the event of loss or damage to the surface float. The system was tested in a 180-m-deep fjord (Puget Sound, Washington) and at Station ALOHA (A Long-Term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment), a 4748-m-deep open-ocean location north of Hawaii. Basic functionality of the system was demonstrated, with the profiler repeatedly recharging at about 225 W (with an overall efficiency of about 70%). Data were relayed back to shore via Iridium and to a nearby ship via the radio and acoustic modems. The system profiled flawlessly for the entire 6-week test in Puget Sound, but charging at the deep site stopped after only 9 days in the deep-ocean deployment owing to damage to the charging station, possibly by surface wave action.

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Xiaofeng Zhao, Caglar Yardim, Dongxiao Wang, and Bruce M. Howe

Abstract

The refractivity from clutter (RFC) technique has been proved to be an effective way to estimate atmospheric duct structure. An important issue for RFC is how to make the estimate more robust, especially in range-dependent ducting conditions. Traditionally, statistical inversion methods need a large number of forward propagation model runs to obtain an acceptable result. Especially when the parameter search space is multidimensional, these methods are prone to being trapped into local optimal solutions. Recently published results (Zhao and Huang) indicate that the adjoint parabolic equation (PE) method holds promise for real-time estimation of one-dimensional refractive index structure from radar sea clutter returns. This paper is aimed at extending the adjoint PE method to range-dependent evaporation duct cases, with a log-linear relationship describing duct structures. Numerical simulations are used to test the performance of this method and the results are compared with that retrieved using a genetic algorithm. Both noise-free and 3-dB additive Gaussian noise clutter simulations are considered, as well as linearly and nonlinearly varying duct height with range.

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Brian D. Dushaw, Bruce M. Howe, Bruce D. Cornuelle, Peter F. Worcester, and Douglas S. Luther

Abstract

Travel times of reciprocal 1000-km range acoustic transmissions, determined from the 1987 Reciprocal Tomography Experiment, are used to study barotropic tidal currents and a large-scale, coherent baroclinic tide in the central North Pacific Ocean. The difference in reciprocal travel times determines the tidal currents, while the sum of reciprocal travel times determines the baroclinic tide displacement of isotachs (or equivalently, isotherms). The barotropic tidal current accounts for 90% of the observed differential travel time variance. The measured harmonic constants of the eight major tidal constituents of the barotropic tide and the constants determined from current meter measurements agree well with the empirical–numerical tidal models of Schwiderski and Cartwright et al. The amplitudes and phases of the first-mode baroclinic tide determined from sum travel times agree with those determined from moored thermistors and current meters. The baroclinic tidal signals are consistent with a large-scale, phase-locked internal tide, which apparently has propagated northward over 2000 km from the Hawaiian Ridge. The amplitude, phase, and polarization of the first-mode M2 baroclinic tidal displacement and current are consistent with a northward propagating internal tide. The ratio of baroclinic energy to barotropic energy determined using the range-averaging acoustic transmissions is about 8%, while a ratio of 26% was determined from the point measurements. The large-scale, internal tide energy flux, presumed northward, is estimated to be about 180 W m−1.

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Brian D. Dushaw, Peter F. Worcester, Bruce D. Cornuelle, and Bruce M. Howe

Abstract

The evolution of the heat content in the central North Pacific Ocean during summer 1987 has been measured using acoustic transmissions between transceivers deployed in a triangle approximately 1000 km on a side. The acoustically determined heat contents of the source-receiver sections agree with heat contents computed from CTD and XBT data obtained during May and September 1987. The accuracy of acoustical measurements of range-averaged heat content is comparable to estimates from CTD and XBT data. Transmissions at four-day intervals allow the continuous observation of heat content and show that it varies on time scales of weeks or less. The magnitude of these variations is of the same order as that observed from XBT sections, which are only occasionally available. Ocean–atmosphere heat exchange from bulk formulas accounts for only about half of the observed heat content increase from May through September 1987, indicating that advective effects are important in the region. The excess heat change is calculated to be of order 50–150 W m−2. The advective component of the near-surface heat budget is roughly in phase with the surface flux component.

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