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C. A. Riegel

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R. C. Whitten and C. A. Riegel

Abstract

The application of the WKB method to internal gravity waves in a compressible fluid with wind shear is studied from the standpoint of dispersion and of the validity of the method. It is shown that at resonance (the level where the phase speed is Doppler-shifted to zero) the validity is dependent only on the local Richardson number; we accept as the criterion that Ri≳1. The wave attenuation obtained by means of the WKB method is very close to that obtained from the “exact” solution.

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W. J. Borucki, R. C. Whitten, H. T. Woodward, L. A. Capone, C. A. Riegel, and S. Gaines

Abstract

A two-dimensional model is used to predict the 1990 reduction in ozone due to the chlorine compounds formed by chlorofluoromethane (CFM) photolysis when the CFM release rate is held constant at the 1975 value. The predicted globally averaged ozone reduction of 3.5% is similar to that predicted by one-dimensional models that did not include chlorine nitrate chemistry, and used lower values for the reactions rates of NO + HO2 → NO2 + OH and O3 + HO2 → OH + 2O2. When the 5.7 ppbv increase in chlorine compounds predicted by one-dimensional models to occur under steady-state conditions is simulated by the two-dimensional model, a 26% decrease in atmospheric ozone is predicted.

The latitude dependence of the ozone reduction is discussed in terms of the relevant photochemical reaction and transport. The chemical reactions that most strongly influence the meridional dependence of the ozone depletion are identified as these associated with the reactions of chlorine monoxide and atomic oxygen, the recombination of ozone and atomic oxygen, and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen.

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