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C. B. Moore

Abstract

Several Of the modern hypotheses that explain thundercloud electrification by charge transfers between particles in clouds do so by ignoring any recombination effects in subsequent interactions of the products of earlier charge separations. As this approach is unrealistic, solutions of the continuity relations for the concentrations of the neutral and of the charged cloud droplets are provided. These show that the concentrations of developed charged droplets are probably appreciably less than estimated in the hypotheses involving precipitation. Similarly, as shown by Colgate, recombination also limits the charge carried downward by falling hydrometeors. Accordingly, the sustained charge-separating ability of sedimenting precipitation is open to question.

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C. B. Moore

Abstract

No abstract available.

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B. Vonnegut
and
C. B. Moore

Abstract

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B. Vonnegut
and
C. B. Moore

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

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C. B. Moore
and
B. Vonnegut

Abstract

Measurements of the conduction current between two electrodes in air over recently boiled water have been interpreted by Carlon as indicating that the humidified air became highly conductive and that large numbers of ions were produced in the air after it was saturated with water vapor. These interpretations have been questioned because it is possible that the insulators used in the high-humidity experiments allowed leakage currents to flow and these were treated as though they were conduction currents through the air.

We repeated these measurements with the use of a conventional, Gerdien cylinder conductivity-measuring apparatus that had insulators heated to temperatures above the dew point of the water vapor in the air being measured so that the insulators maintained high resistances. The results from the heated Gerdien cylinder experiments contradict the suggestions of high conductivities in humid air, for the measured conductivities of air were repeatedly observed to decrease by about 50% when recently boiled, hot water was brought in contact with the air.

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C. B. Moore
and
B. Vonnegut

Abstract

No abstract available.

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B. Vonnegut
,
C. B. Moore
, and
C. K. Harris

Abstract

No Abstract Available

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B. Vonnegut
,
C. B. Moore
, and
C. K. Harris

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

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B. B. Hicks
,
P. Hyson
, and
C. J. Moore

Abstract

Eddy correlation instruments mounted above a plantation of Pinus radiato near Mt. Gambier, South Australia, have been operated during two periods of intensive effort, in May and October, 1972. Measurements of the Reynolds stress and of wind speed gradients show that the zero plane for momentum is located at about d = 0.8h (where h is the height of the trees), and that the roughness length of the surface is about 30% of the difference (hd).Sensible heat fluxes and temperature gradients give a displacement length not significantly different from that applicable in the momentum case, but the roughness length for sensible heat transfer is smaller than that for momentum, by about a factor of 3.Advective effects are found to be important, particularly when the fetch across the canopy is less than about 0.8 km (corresponding in our case to an effective fetch/height ratio of between 100 and 200). Long-fetch cases allow an evaluation of the heat storage (S) in the canopy and in the air below the height of eddy flux measurement. The rate of heat storage is found to be about 60 ± 20 W m−2 per °C h−1 of canopy temperature change (for a densely packed forest with trees about 13 m high), which is compatible with measurements of the biomass and assumed specific heats. The residual heat energy at about 6 m above the effective zero plane, unaccounted for by the various measured fluxes, is found to be related to the difference in net radiation over grassland and forest.During daytime, the forest is found to lose heat by turbulence in much the same manner as pasture, with fluxes of similar magnitude (although possibly differing to the extent of differences in ground flux, albedo and emissivity, for example) and giving similar Bowen ratios. At night, however, the evaporation from the forest tends to continue as heat is supplied by the cooling canopy. This is in direct contrast to the usual situation over pasture, where the heat storage is not of sufficient magnitude to result in this behavior.

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Athelstan F. Spilhaus
,
C. S. Schneider
, and
C. B. Moore

Abstract

The results of an experimental program to develop balloons with associated control devices, which will float at constant pressure in the atmosphere, are given.

Newly developed plastic balloons and automatic ballast equipment are described. Examples of successful controlled-altitude flights are shown, together with a preliminary analysis of their trajectories.

The constant-level balloon may provide data not obtainable from an ordinary pilot-balloon network. Future possibilities and plans for its use are indicated.

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