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C. DORNO

Abstract

The author discusses apparatus that has been employed at the Davos Physical-Meteorological Observatory to measure the total solar radiation received at the surface of the earth, the intensity of radiation received from restricted regions of the solar spectrum, the intensity of irradiation, or outgoing nocturnal radiation from a black body and also the ration received at the earth's surface from the atmosphere. Especial attention is given to registering apparatus, principally of the photographic type.

A thermopile for measuring the total radiation, potassium and cadmium cells for measuring the radiation from the visible and the ultra-violet regions of the solar spectrum, and Ångström's tulipan for measuring nocturnal radiation find favor with the author.

In a brief summary of the Dams measurements it is shown that if we take into account the albedo of snow in winter and of the ground surface in simmer, throughout the year “Hardly a third of the incoming radiation has contributed to the heating of the air and the melting [of snow or ice] and evaporation of moisture.”

The results of recent medical researches are cited to snow the value of the measurements of radiation intensity in the ultra-violet region of the solar spectrum.—H. H. K.

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C. DORNO

Abstract

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C. DORNO

Abstract

SYNOPSIS

The scientific and practical importance of the above program is emphasized. On account of the inadequacy of existing meteorological records, special observations, including detailed cloud records, are necessary before sites for solar observatories are finally decided upon. To obtain these cloud records and instrument, which has been employed at the Davos observatory since October, 1919, for recording the illumination of a horizontal surface by the sun and sky may be utilized.

Since, at night, the radiation to the sky varies with zenith distance but not with azimuth, it becomes possible to use for the measurements a blackened hollow sphere as an absolute black body, such as Angström's “Tulipan.” This seems to meet Abbot's objection that the absorption of blackened surfaces for wave lengths greater than 15µ is not well known, and, in consequence, measurements by instruments, like Angströs pyrgeometer contain an unknown error. Comparisons between the pyrgeometer and the Tulipan, however, show a reasonably constant ratio.

The importance of ascertaining the ozone content of the atmosphere is emphasized, and it is pointed out that photoelectric intensity measurements with cadmium cell of the spectrally decomposed ultra-violet radiation may help to solve this difficult problem.

It is suggested that for investigations in the infra-red bacteria may be used in place of photographic plates. Also, that Angströs nocturnal radiation measurements of 1913 should be repeated in optically undisturbed times. —H. H. K.

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C. DORNO

Abstract

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C. DORNO

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C. DORNO

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Dr. C. Dorno
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Prof. Dr. C. DORNO

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Dr. C. DORNO

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A. ÅNGSTRÖM and C. DORNO

Abstract

SYNOPSIS

The pyranometer of A. Ångström has been combined, at the observatory of Prof. Dorno, at Davos, with a recording device consisting of lamp, galvanometer, and a rotating photographic film, upon which the galvanometer deflection is recorded. In this way records are obtained of the total heat radiation from sun and sky upon a horizontal surface at all times of day, and from this record the daily sums are easily computed. In the present paper the recording method is described, the sources of error are discussed, and finally the results from the records at Davos are presented and compared with results of measurements at Washington and with the records of the brightness previously obtained by Prof. Dorno.

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