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C. Eugene Buell

Abstract

A relation between the coefficients of variation for pressure, density and temperature is derived which must be satisfied if these statistical parameters are those of an atmosphere that satisfies the perfect gas law and the hydrostatic equation. Data on these parameters for Cape Kennedy, Fla., are adjusted on the basis of this relation. Corresponding adjusted values of the correlation coefficients rpT, r, rρp are obtained. A parameter that measures the depth of pressure perturbation systems is also obtained for the levels from the surface to 90 km.

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C. EUGENE BUELL

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C. Eugene Buell

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C. Eugene Buell

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C. Eugene Buell

In establishing a relation between the amount of thunderstorm rainfall and certain upper-air parameters for use in New Mexico, it was found that the rainfall and the temperature difference between the 700-mb and 500-mb levels are negatively correlated. A similar relation was verified for summer thunderstorms in southern Florida. It is suggested that this may be characteristic of some non-frontal thunderstorms.

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C. Eugene Buell

An attempt is made to determine whether or not the effectiveness of cloud seeding in increasing the amount of natural rainfall during the years 1951 and 1952 over western New Mexico and southeastern Arizona can be established. Only the months of July and August are considered since these are the months during which the rainfall is greatest and is mostly from non-frontal convective thunderstorms or showers.

The method used consists of estimating the amount of natural rainfall that might be expected from the mixing ratios at the 700-mb and 500-mb levels and the temperature difference between these levels, the difference between the estimate of the natural rainfall and the actual rainfall containing the part that might be attributed to the effectiveness of cloud seeding.

It is found that the effectiveness of cloud seeding cannot be established by this method on the basis of the data accumulated to date at an acceptable level of significance (1% or at most 5%). An interesting dilemma develops in that if effectiveness is acceptable at the 9% level for only those days on which seeding occurred, it is not possible to escape the conclusion that since seeding did not occur on all days, the suspension of operations on these few days reduces the effectiveness of the whole operation to nearly zero.

It seems evident from the data analyzed that if there is additional rainfall due to cloud seeding it can, at most, not exceed an amount of about 10%. Statistical methods to establish so small an amount must be very refined.

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C. Eugene Buell

Abstract

The fact that the geostrophic wind equations describe a large fraction of the relation between wind and geopotential and that the atmosphere approximates horizontal homogeneity and is nearly isotropic leads to two differential equations relating the correlation coefficients for geopotential with those for longitudinal and transverse wind components. Consequently, empirical formulas for any one of these correlation coefficients cannot be reasonably considered without reference to both the others. A family of three such related correlation coefficients must simultaneously fit observed correlations for all three quantities concerned. Several such self-consistent sets of correlation coefficients are compared with the data.

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C. Eugene Buell

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C. Eugene Buell

Abstract

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C. Eugene Buell

Abstract

The approximate relations between the correlation coefficient for geopotential, the longitudinal wind component, and the transverse wind component on an isobaric surface in the case of an homogeneous isotropic atmosphere are discussed briefly. Corresponding approximate relations for a nonhomogeneous and non-isotropic atmosphere are presented. The mixed correlations for wind component (longitudinal with transverse, and vice versa) are no longer identically zero (as was the case for the homogeneous isotropic atmosphere). Approximate expressions for these mixed correlation coefficient functions are presented in terms of the correlation coefficient for geopotential. It is shown that the general configuration of values computed from observed winds are those expected from theoretical considerations.

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