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Roland List, R. Nissen, and C. Fung

Abstract

Fragment size distributions, experimentally obtained for six drop pairs colliding at 50 kPa, are parameterized similarly to the 100-kPa drop pair experiments by Low and List. This information is then introduced into a box model to allow assessment of the spectra evolution and a comparison of the two datasets taken at the two pressures. The differences in breakup patterns include the following: The contributions to mass transfer by breakup and coalescence are very similar at the two pressures, with larger values at lower pressure; the overall mass evolution is not particularly sensitive to pressure; and disk breakup plays an “erratic” role. The situation for the number concentration, however, is totally different and develops gradually. At 50 kPa there is also no three-peak equilibrium developing as for 100 kPa. The times to reach equilibrium are ∼12 h. Note that the box model does not include accretion of cloud droplets—which may well be more important than growth by accretion of fragments.

Application of the new parameterization is not beneficial for low rain rates, but it is strongly recommended for large rain rates (>50 mm h−1).

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Roland List, C. Fung, and R. Nissen

Abstract

Previous breakup experiments have been carried out at laboratory pressures (∼100 kPa). However, raindrop interactions mainly take place higher up in the atmosphere, even in the supercooled part of a cloud where drops can be initiated by shedding from hailstones. Thus, 50 kPa, corresponding to a height of ∼5.5 km in the atmosphere at a temperature of ∼−20°C, was selected to bracket the region of interest for rain. Six drop pairs were studied at 50 kPa and laboratory temperature (∼20°C), one of them with reduced surface tension.

The apparatus consists of drop-producing nozzles, acceleration systems, deflectors, a timing and selection control, a pressure regulator, and a photographic unit, mostly set up in a low-pressure chamber. After acceleration to terminal speed, a smaller drop is blown into the path of the larger one while an electronic timing system selects suitable drop pairs that may collide, thereby triggering eight subsequent flashes with a frequency of up to 100 kHz. The results are displayed in terms of a normalized fragment probability per size bin, ready for parameterization in the Part II of this paper.

Five drop pairs were studied in 772 individual events. Overall, 51% resulted in filament breakup, 22% in sheet breakup, 7% in disk breakup, and 20% ended in coalescence. No bag breakups were observed. When compared to the 100-kPa results, the fragment numbers increased at large collision kinetic energies (CKEs) by factors of between 2.64 and 4.37 with pressure decreasing from 100 to 50 kPa, and they remained unchanged at low CKE. Detailed diagrams and tables show the results for the different drop pairs and collision categories. Increasing the sensitivity of the optical measurements from 0.05 to 0.01 cm increased the number of recognized fragments by factors up to 4.4, but only for the two higher-CKE cases. The higher resolution did not increase the fragment numbers detected in the lower-CKE range.

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Cara C. Henning, David Archer, and Inez Fung

Abstract

Noble gases such as argon are unaffected by chemical reactions in the ocean interior, but a number of physical mechanisms can lead to measurable sea level atmospheric disequilibrium in subsurface waters of the ocean. One such mechanism is the mixing of waters of different temperatures, which can lead to supersaturation in the ocean interior. The authors simulate the supersaturation mixing signature in the thermocline in a global ocean general circulation model, Parallel Ocean Program model, version 1.4 (POP 1.4). In contrast to existing mixing diagnostics such as dye tracers or microstructure measurements, which yield the local, recent rate of diabatic mixing, argon disequilibrium traces an integrated lifetime history of subsurface mixing. A theoretical model of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean gyre is built, based on the competing time scales of horizontal and vertical mixing, that agrees well with the full general circulation model argon supersaturation gradient in the thermocline. These results suggest that gyre-scale argon data from the real ocean could be similarly interpreted. The variation of the argon supersaturation with diffusivity in the equatorial Pacific Ocean is also investigated.

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F. L. Yin, I. Y. Fung, and C. K. Chu

Abstract

A multilayer ocean model that is physically simple and computationally efficient is developed for studies of competition and interaction among deep-water sources in determining ocean circulation. The model is essentially geostrophic and hydrostatic in the ocean interior with Rayleigh friction added in boundary-layer and equatorial regions. A stably stratified density structure is specified at static equilibrium, and cross-isopycnal mixing is parameterized as a diffusive flux. The model is forced by latitudinally varying Ekman pumping velocities at the base of the ocean surface Ekman layer and localized deep-water sources.

A four-layer version of the model has been run in a rectangular basin with 5000-m depth, extending from 65°S to 65°N latitude and covering 70 degrees of longitude. The four layers mimic the major water masses observed in the Atlantic Ocean: thermocline water, intermediate water, North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). For forcing corresponding to the current climate, warm water and cold water circulation routes produced in the model agree with those inferred from observations, for example, southward-flowing NADW overriding northward-flowing AABW in the western boundary.

The model shows that subtropical gyres intensify, and thermocline depths become shallow, when deep-water formation rates increase, or when vertical diffusivity kv decreases, or when more NADW is formed from the thermocline layer than that from the intermediate layer. Consistent with the advective thermocline depth scaling, distributions of the Ekman pumping contribute little to deep-water circulations.

The interaction between NADW and AABW sources is demonstrated. Changes in the formation rate of a deep-water source alter cross-isopycnal flows, especially along the related circulation route, thus altering the extent that the other sources can travel before they detrain significantly. These changes feed back onto the thermocline circulation and cross-equatorial transports.

The model suggests that reduction in deep-water formation rate may increase the transient response time of the atmosphere to perturbations, because the thermocline depth becomes deeper. Also, poleward heat transport may decrease, thus acting to self-regulate the temperatures in polar regions.

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Scott C. Doney, Keith Lindsay, Inez Fung, and Jasmin John

Abstract

A new 3D global coupled carbon–climate model is presented in the framework of the Community Climate System Model (CSM-1.4). The biogeochemical module includes explicit land water–carbon coupling, dynamic carbon allocation to leaf, root, and wood, prognostic leaf phenology, multiple soil and detrital carbon pools, oceanic iron limitation, a full ocean iron cycle, and 3D atmospheric CO2 transport. A sequential spinup strategy is utilized to minimize the coupling shock and drifts in land and ocean carbon inventories. A stable, 1000-yr control simulation [global annual mean surface temperature ±0.10 K and atmospheric CO2 ± 1.2 ppm (1σ)] is presented with no flux adjustment in either physics or biogeochemistry. The control simulation compares reasonably well against observations for key annual mean and seasonal carbon cycle metrics; regional biases in coupled model physics, however, propagate clearly into biogeochemical error patterns. Simulated interannual-to-centennial variability in atmospheric CO2 is dominated by terrestrial carbon flux variability, ±0.69 Pg C yr−1 (1σ global net annual mean), which in turn reflects primarily regional changes in net primary production modulated by moisture stress. Power spectra of global CO2 fluxes are white on time scales beyond a few years, and thus most of the variance is concentrated at high frequencies (time scale <4 yr). Model variability in air–sea CO2 fluxes, ±0.10 Pg C yr−1 (1σ global annual mean), is generated by variability in sea surface temperature, wind speed, export production, and mixing/upwelling. At low frequencies (time scale >20 yr), global net ocean CO2 flux is strongly anticorrelated (0.7–0.95) with the net CO2 flux from land; the ocean tends to damp (20%–25%) slow variations in atmospheric CO2 generated by the terrestrial biosphere. The intrinsic, unforced natural variability in land and ocean carbon storage is the “noise” that complicates the detection and mechanistic attribution of contemporary anthropogenic carbon sinks.

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Abigail L. S. Swann, Inez Y. Fung, Yuwei Liu, and John C. H. Chiang

Abstract

In the mid-Holocene, the climate of northern Africa was characterized by wetter conditions than present, as evidenced by higher paleolake levels and pollen assemblages of savannah vegetation suggesting a wetter, greener Sahara. Previous modeling studies have struggled to simulate sufficient amounts of precipitation when considering orbital forcing alone, with limited improvement from considering the effects of local grasslands. Here it is proposed that remote forcing from expanded forest cover in Eurasia relative to today is capable of shifting the intertropical convergence zone northward, resulting in an enhancement in precipitation over northern Africa approximately 6000 years ago greater than that resulting from orbital forcing and local vegetation alone. It is demonstrated that the remote and local forcing of atmospheric circulation by vegetation can lead to different dynamical patterns with consequences for precipitation across the globe. These ecoclimate teleconnections represent the linkages between the land surface in different regions of the globe and by inference show that proxy records of plant cover represent not only the response of vegetation to local climate but also that vegetation’s influence on global climate patterns.

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Jeff C. F. Lo, Alexis K. H. Lau, Fei Chen, Jimmy C. H. Fung, and Kenneth K. M. Leung

Abstract

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, located in the southern part of Guangdong Province in China, is one of the most rapidly developing regions in the world. The evolution of local and regional sea-breeze circulation (SBC) is believed to be responsible for forming meteorological conditions for high air-pollution episodes in the PRD. To understand better the impacts of urbanization and its associated urban heat island (UHI) on the local- and regional-scale atmospheric circulations over PRD, a number of high-resolution numerical experiments, with different approaches to treat the land surface and urban processes, have been conducted using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results show that an accurate urban land-use dataset and a proper urban land-use parameterization are critical for the mesoscale model to capture the major features of the observed UHI effect and land–sea-breeze circulations in the PRD. Stronger UHI in the PRD increases the differential temperature gradient between urbanized areas and nearby ocean surface and hence enhances the mesoscale SBC. The SBC front consequently penetrates farther inland to overcome the prevailing easterly flow in the western part of inland Hong Kong. Additional sensitivity studies indicate that further industrial development and urbanization will strengthen the daytime SBC as well as increase the air temperature in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere.

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D.A. Randall, D.A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, A.S. Denning, P.J. Sellers, C.J. Tucker, L. Bounoua, J.A. Berry, G.J. Collatz, C.B. Field, S.O. Los, C.O. Justice, and I. Fung

Abstract

SiB2, the second-generation land-surface parameterization developed by Sellers et al., has been incorporated into the Colorado State University general circulation model and tested in multidecade simulation. The control run uses a “bucket” hydrology but employs the same surface albedo and surface roughness distributions as the SiB2 run.

Results show that SiB2 leads to a general warming of the continents, as evidenced in the ground temperature, surface air temperature, and boundary-layer-mean potential temperature. The surface sensible heat flux increases and the latent heat flux decreases. This warming occurs virtually everywhere but is most spectacular over Siberia in winter.

Precipitation generally decreases over land but increases in the monsoon regions, especially the Amazon basin in January and equatorial Africa and Southeast Asia in July. Evaporation decreases considerably, especially in dry regions such as the Sahara. The excess of precipitation over evaporation increases in the monsoon regions.

The precipitable water (vertically integrated water vapor content) generally decreases over land but increases in the monsoon regions. The mixing ratio of the boundary-layer air decreases over newly all continental areas, however, including the monsoon regions. The average (composite) maximum boundary-layer depth over the diurnal cycle increases in the monsoon regions, as does the average PBL turbulence kinetic energy. The average boundary-layer wind speed also increases over most continental regions.

Groundwater content generally increases in rainy regions and decreases in dry regions, so that SiB2 has a tendency to increase its spatial variability. SiB2 leas to a general reduction of cloudiness over land. The net surface longwave cooling of the surface increases quite dramatically over land, in accordance with the increased surface temperatures and decreased cloudiness. The solar radiation absorbed at the ground also increases.

SiB2 has modest effects on the simulated general circulation of the atmosphere. Its most important impacts on the model are to improve the simulations of surface temperature and snow cover and to enable the simulation of the net rate of terrestrial carbon assimilation

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L. Bounoua, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, D. A. Randall, D. A. Dazlich, S. O. Los, J. A. Berry, I. Fung, C. J. Tucker, C. B. Field, and T. G. Jensen

Abstract

The radiative and physiological effects of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on climate are investigated using a coupled biosphere–atmosphere model. Five 30-yr climate simulations, designed to assess the radiative and physiological effects of doubled CO2, were compared to a 30-yr control run.

When the CO2 concentration was doubled for the vegetation physiological calculations only assuming no changes in vegetation biochemistry, the mean temperature increase over land was rather small (0.3 K) and was associated with a slight decrease in precipitation (−0.3%). In a second case, the vegetation was assumed to have adapted its biochemistry to a doubled CO2 (2 × CO2) atmosphere and this down regulation caused a 35% decrease in stomatal conductance and a 0.7-K increase in land surface temperature. The response of the terrestrial biosphere to radiative forcing alone—that is, a conventional greenhouse warming effect—revealed important interactions between the climate and the vegetation. Although the global mean photosynthesis exhibited no change, a slight stimulation was observed in the tropical regions, whereas in the northern latitudes photosynthesis and canopy conductance decreased as a result of high temperature stress during the growing season. This was associated with a temperature increase of more than 2 K greater in the northern latitudes than in the Tropics (4.0 K vs 1.7 K). These interactions also resulted in an asymmetry in the diurnal temperature cycle, especially in the Tropics where the nighttime temperature increase due to radiative forcing was about twice that of the daytime, an effect not discernible in the daily mean temperatures. The radiative forcing resulted in a mean temperature increase over land of 2.6 K and 7% increase in precipitation with the least effect in the Tropics. As the physiological effects were imposed along with the radiative effects, the overall temperature increase over land was 2.7 K but with a smaller difference (0.7 K) between the northern latitudes and the Tropics. The radiative forcing resulted in an increase in available energy at the earth’s surface and, in the absence of physiological effects, the evapotranspiration increased. However, changes in the physiological control of evapotranspiration due to increased CO2 largely compensated for the radiative effects and reduced the evapotranspiration approximately to its control value.

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P. Friedlingstein, P. Cox, R. Betts, L. Bopp, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, S. Doney, M. Eby, I. Fung, G. Bala, J. John, C. Jones, F. Joos, T. Kato, M. Kawamiya, W. Knorr, K. Lindsay, H. D. Matthews, T. Raddatz, P. Rayner, C. Reick, E. Roeckner, K.-G. Schnitzler, R. Schnur, K. Strassmann, A. J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng

Abstract

Eleven coupled climate–carbon cycle models used a common protocol to study the coupling between climate change and the carbon cycle. The models were forced by historical emissions and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 anthropogenic emissions of CO2 for the 1850–2100 time period. For each model, two simulations were performed in order to isolate the impact of climate change on the land and ocean carbon cycle, and therefore the climate feedback on the atmospheric CO2 concentration growth rate. There was unanimous agreement among the models that future climate change will reduce the efficiency of the earth system to absorb the anthropogenic carbon perturbation. A larger fraction of anthropogenic CO2 will stay airborne if climate change is accounted for. By the end of the twenty-first century, this additional CO2 varied between 20 and 200 ppm for the two extreme models, the majority of the models lying between 50 and 100 ppm. The higher CO2 levels led to an additional climate warming ranging between 0.1° and 1.5°C.

All models simulated a negative sensitivity for both the land and the ocean carbon cycle to future climate. However, there was still a large uncertainty on the magnitude of these sensitivities. Eight models attributed most of the changes to the land, while three attributed it to the ocean. Also, a majority of the models located the reduction of land carbon uptake in the Tropics. However, the attribution of the land sensitivity to changes in net primary productivity versus changes in respiration is still subject to debate; no consensus emerged among the models.

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