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C. M. H. Unal and D. N. Moisseev

Abstract

Combining Doppler and polarimetric information is advantageous for atmospheric studies. On the one hand, Doppler information gives insight into the microphysical and dynamic properties of radar targets, that is, radial velocity and its variability. The polarization diversity, on the other hand, has a strong link to the microphysical properties of targets such as shape and orientation. Polarimetric measurements, however, have an adverse effect on Doppler processing. Measurements of the complete scattering matrix require at least two pulses and result in the reduction of the maximum unambiguous Doppler velocity that can lead to Doppler spectrum aliasing. Moreover, dynamic properties of targets, because of the nonsimultaneity of the measurements performed with different polarizations, affect the accuracy of polarimetric radar measurements.

A solution to these two problems is given in this paper. It is shown that by applying a relatively simple processing technique the effect of nonsimultaneous polarimetric measurements can be reduced even in the case of strong Doppler spectrum aliasing. This leads to better estimates of the copolar cross-correlation coefficient. Furthermore, this processing results in the maximum unambiguous Doppler velocity as if no polarimetric measurements were performed, with the added advantage of obtaining the actual Doppler velocities. To illustrate the proposed processing technique, precipitation measurements taken with the Delft Atmospheric Research Radar (DARR) are used.

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D. N. Moisseev, V. Chandrasekar, C. M. H. Unal, and H. W. J. Russchenberg

Abstract

Dual-polarization radar observations of precipitation depend on size–shape relations of raindrops. There are several studies presented in literature dedicated to the investigation of this relation. In this work a new approach of investigating raindrop size–shape relation on short time and spatial scales from radar observations is presented. The presented method is based on the use of dual-polarization Doppler power spectral analysis. By measuring complete Doppler spectra at a sufficiently high elevation angle at two polarization settings, namely, horizontal and vertical, it is possible to retrieve drop size distribution (DSD) parameters, ambient air velocity, spectral broadening, and the slope of the assumed linear dependence of raindrop size–shape relation.

This paper is mainly focused on the development of the retrieval algorithm and analysis of its performance. As a part of the proposed method an efficient algorithm for DSD parameter retrieval was developed. It is shown that the DSD parameter retrieval method, which usually requires the solution of five-parameter nonlinear optimization problems, can be simplified to a three-parameter nonlinear least squares problem.

Furthermore, the performance of the proposed retrieval technique is illustrated on the dual-polarization measurements collected by the S-band Transportable Atmospheric Radar (TARA) at Cabauw, Netherlands, and by the Colorado State University–University of Chicago–Illinois State Water Survey (CSU–CHILL) radar from Greeley, Colorado.

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A. C. P. Oude Nijhuis, C. M. H. Unal, O. A. Krasnov, H. W. J. Russchenberg, and A. G. Yarovoy

Abstract

In this article, five velocity-based energy dissipation rate (EDR) retrieval techniques are assessed. The EDR retrieval techniques are applied to Doppler measurements from Transportable Atmospheric Radar (TARA)—a precipitation profiling radar—operating in the vertically fixed-pointing mode. A generalized formula for the Kolmogorov constant is derived, which gives potential for the application of the EDR retrieval techniques to any radar line of sight (LOS). Two case studies are discussed that contain rain events of about 2 and 18 h, respectively. The EDR values retrieved from the radar are compared to in situ EDR values from collocated sonic anemometers. For the two case studies, a correlation coefficient of 0.79 was found for the wind speed variance (WSV) EDR retrieval technique, which uses 3D wind vectors as input and has a total sampling time of 10 min. From this comparison it is concluded that the radar is able to measure EDR with a reasonable accuracy. Almost no correlation was found for the vertical wind velocity variance (VWVV) EDR retrieval technique, as it was not possible to sufficiently separate the turbulence dynamics contribution to the radar Doppler mean velocities from the velocity contribution of falling raindrops. An important cause of the discrepancies between radar and in situ EDR values is thus due to insufficient accurate estimation of vertical air velocities.

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A. L. J. Spek, C. M. H. Unal, D. N. Moisseev, H. W. J. Russchenberg, V. Chandrasekar, and Y. Dufournet

Abstract

In this study, a dual-polarization spectral analysis for retrieval of microphysical properties of ice hydrometeors is developed. It is shown that, by using simultaneous Doppler polarimetric observations taken at a 45° elevation angle, it is possible to discriminate between different types of ice particles. Particle size distribution parameters for maximally two dominating types of ice particles (aggregates and plates) observed above the melting layer are retrieved. Prior to the retrieval algorithm, a selection of possible types of ice particles based on environmental conditions is carried out. The retrieval procedure is based on a least squares optimization that simultaneously minimizes fit residuals in a Doppler power spectrum and spectral differential reflectivity. The proposed method is illustrated on transportable atmospheric radar (TARA) observations of stratiform rain collected on 19 September 2001 at Cabauw, Netherlands.

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

Abstract

The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) observatory hosts a unique collection of instruments related to precipitation measurement. The data collected by these instruments are stored in a database that is freely accessible through a Web interface. The instruments present at the CESAR site include three disdrometers (two on the ground and one at 200 m above ground level), a dense network of rain gauges, three profiling radars (1.3, 3.3, and 35 GHz), and an X-band Doppler polarimetric scanning radar. In addition to these instruments, operational weather radar data from the nearby (∼25 km) De Bilt C-band Doppler radar are also available. The richness of the datasets available is illustrated for a rainfall event, where the synergy of the different instruments provides insight into precipitation at multiple spatial and temporal scales. These datasets, which are freely available to the scientific community, can contribute greatly to our understanding of precipitation-related atmospheric and hydrologic processes.

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