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S. K. Kao and C. N. Chi


An analysis of the forces and motion at 500 mb, between 30 and 60°N, in wavenumber-frequency domain, indicates that there exist definite cycles in the generation, transport and dissipation of the kinetic and available potential energies associated with long- and synoptic-scale waves. The growth and decay of the kinetic energy of long- and synoptic-scale waves are primarily controlled by the transport of kinetic energy to and from the waves through the nonlinear wave interactions, while the contribution to the kinetic energy through energy conversion tends to balance the effects of the Reynolds and frictional stresses. The evolution of the available potential energy associated with the long and synoptic waves is essentially the consequence of the transfer of thermal energy to and from the wave through the interaction between the velocity and temperature waves, while the transfer of thermal energy through the interactions between the velocity waves and the gradient of the zonal mean temperature tends to balance the effects of diabatic heating or cooling and energy conversion. The growth and decay of the kinetic energy of the zonal flow are primarily the result of the interaction between the velocity waves and the gradient of the mean zonal velocity, while the energy conversion from available potential to kinetic energy tends to balance the effects of the Reynolds and frictional stresses. The evolution of available potential energy associated with the zonal flow is essentially controlled by the interaction between the velocity waves and the gradient of the zonal mean temperature, while the effect of diabatic heating tends to balance the effect of energy conversion between the kinetic and available potential energies.

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S. K. Kao, C. N. Chi, and W. M. Washington


An analysis of the three-dimensional, large-scale movement of air particles for the winter months with the NCAR general circulation model indicates that the horizontal movement of particles in the upper troposphere is greatly affected by wave motion in mid- and high latitudes, by the field of horizontal convergence and divergence, and by mean meridional circulation in the tropics. The mean center of mass of particles in both hemispheres generally moves toward respective poles and the mean squire of the meridional component of the particle distances generally decreases with increasing time, indicating the effect of horizontal convergence on particle movement near the subtropics. The vertical movement of the particles is affected by upward motion near the thermal equator and downward motion near the subtropical region in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The vertical dispersion is most intense in the tropics and decreases toward the poles. There are two maxima of particle accumulation, one occurring near 15°N, the other near 30°S, and a minimum accumulation of particles appears near the thermal equator, indicating the effects of the divergence field and meridional circulation between the thermal equator and the subtropics.

The mean squares of zonal, meridional and vertical components of the distance for dusty” of particles released at the equator and 45°N appear to consist of two components, a monotonicaly increasing component due essentially to the effect of turbulent diffusion, and a periodic component due primarily to the horizontal velocity convergence and divergence of mean motion.

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C. L. Reddington, K. S. Carslaw, P. Stier, N. Schutgens, H. Coe, D. Liu, J. Allan, J. Browse, K. J. Pringle, L. A. Lee, M. Yoshioka, J. S. Johnson, L. A. Regayre, D. V. Spracklen, G. W. Mann, A. Clarke, M. Hermann, S. Henning, H. Wex, T. B. Kristensen, W. R. Leaitch, U. Pöschl, D. Rose, M. O. Andreae, J. Schmale, Y. Kondo, N. Oshima, J. P. Schwarz, A. Nenes, B. Anderson, G. C. Roberts, J. R. Snider, C. Leck, P. K. Quinn, X. Chi, A. Ding, J. L. Jimenez, and Q. Zhang


The largest uncertainty in the historical radiative forcing of climate is caused by changes in aerosol particles due to anthropogenic activity. Sophisticated aerosol microphysics processes have been included in many climate models in an effort to reduce the uncertainty. However, the models are very challenging to evaluate and constrain because they require extensive in situ measurements of the particle size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition that are not available from global satellite observations. The Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP) aims to improve the robustness of global aerosol models by combining new methodologies for quantifying model uncertainty, to create an extensive global dataset of aerosol in situ microphysical and chemical measurements, and to develop new ways to assess the uncertainty associated with comparing sparse point measurements with low-resolution models. GASSP has assembled over 45,000 hours of measurements from ships and aircraft as well as data from over 350 ground stations. The measurements have been harmonized into a standardized format that is easily used by modelers and nonspecialist users. Available measurements are extensive, but they are biased to polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, leaving large pristine regions and many continental areas poorly sampled. The aerosol radiative forcing uncertainty can be reduced using a rigorous model–data synthesis approach. Nevertheless, our research highlights significant remaining challenges because of the difficulty of constraining many interwoven model uncertainties simultaneously. Although the physical realism of global aerosol models still needs to be improved, the uncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing will be reduced most effectively by systematically and rigorously constraining the models using extensive syntheses of measurements.

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