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F. G. Meyer
,
J. A. Curry
,
C. A. Brock
, and
L. F. Radke

Abstract

Since the Ptarmigan flights in the 1950s, the springtime visibility reduction in the Arctic has been identified with pollution aerosol. However, observed values of the dry aerosol extinction coefficient are too small to explain the observed visibility reductions. Water uptake by the aerosol appears to be an important component of the Arctic turbidity. Furthermore, the presence of lower-tropospheric ice crystals may have a dominant effect on the visibility in the Arctic. Data obtained from a series of meteorological, chemical, and cloud microphysical measurements made by the University of Washington research aircraft during April 1983 and 1986 are used as input for a visibility model. The model calculates the water uptake by the dry aerosols as a function of relative humidity and determines the single-scattering properties of the aerosols and the ice crystals. Path radiances are calculated using an extension to the delta-Eddington approximation introduced by Hering. Modeled visual ranges indicate that aerosols alone cannot account for the low visibilities. In certain cases, the inclusion of ice crystals along with the aerosols can produce visual ranges which are as low as those observed. A comparison between visual ranges obtained using the model and estimated using Koschmieder's equation showed that Koschmieder's equation will generally underestimate the visual range.

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Ryan J. Moniz
,
Derek A. Fong
,
C. Brock Woodson
,
Susan K. Willis
,
Mark T. Stacey
, and
Stephen G. Monismith

Abstract

Autonomous underwater vehicle measurements are used to quantify lateral dispersion of a continuously released Rhodamine WT dye plume within the stratified interior of shelf waters in northern Monterey Bay, California. The along-shelf evolution of the plume’s cross-shelf (lateral) width provides evidence for scale-dependent dispersion following the 4/3 law, as previously observed in both surface and bottom layers. The lateral dispersion coefficient is observed to grow to 0.5 m2 s−1 at a distance of 700 m downstream of the dye source. The role of shear and associated intermittent turbulent mixing within the stratified interior is investigated as a driving mechanism for lateral dispersion. Using measurements of time-varying temperature and horizontal velocities, both an analytical shear-flow dispersion model and a particle-tracking model generate estimates of the lateral dispersion that agree with the field-measured 4/3 law of dispersion, without explicit appeal to any assumed turbulence structure.

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Justin S. Rogers
,
Samantha A. Maticka
,
Ved Chirayath
,
C. Brock Woodson
,
Juan J. Alonso
, and
Stephen G. Monismith

Abstract

Flow over complex terrain causes stress on the bottom leading to drag, turbulence, and formation of a boundary layer. But despite the importance of the hydrodynamic roughness scale z 0 in predicting flows and mixing, little is known about its connection to complex terrain. To address this gap, we conducted extensive field observations of flows and finescale measurements of bathymetry using fluid-lensing techniques over a shallow coral reef on Ofu, American Samoa. We developed a validated centimeter-scale nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic model of the reef, and the results for drag compare well with the observations. The total drag is caused by pressure differences creating form drag and is only a function of relative depth and spatially averaged streamwise slope, consistent with scaling for kδ-type roughness, where k is the roughness height and δ is the boundary layer thickness. We approximate the complex reef surface as a superposition of wavy bedforms and present a simple method for predicting z 0 from the spatial root-mean-square of depth and streamwise slope of the bathymetric surface and a linear coefficient a 1, similar to results from other studies on wavy bedforms. While the local velocity profiles vary widely, the horizontal average is consistent with a log-layer approximation. The model grid resolution required to accurately compute the form drag is O(10–50) times the dominant horizontal hydrodynamic scale, which is determined by a peak in the spectra of the streamwise slope. The approach taken in this study is likely applicable to other complex terrains and could be explored for other settings.

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H.H. Jonsson
,
J.C. Wilson
,
C.A. Brock
,
R.G. Knollenberg
,
T.R. Newton
,
J.E. Dye
,
D. Baumgardner
,
S. Borrmann
,
G.V. Ferry
,
R. Pueschel
,
Dave C. Woods
, and
Mike C. Pitts

Abstract

A focused cavity aerosol spectrometer aboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft provided high-resolution measurements of the size of the stratospheric particles in the 0.06–2.0-µm-diameter range in flights following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. Effects of anisokinetic sampling and evaporation in the sampling system were accounted for by means adapted and specifically developed for this instrument. Calibrations with monodisperse aerosol particles provided the instrument's response matrix, which upon inversion during data reduction yielded the particle size distributions. The resultant dataset is internally consistent and generally shows agreement to within a factor of 2 with comparable measurements simultaneously obtained by a condensation nuclei counter, a forward-scattering spectrometer probe, and aerosol particle impactors, as well as with nearby extinction profiles obtained by satellite measurements and with lidar measurements of backscatter.

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Annmarie G. Carlton
,
Joost de Gouw
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Jesse L. Ambrose
,
Alexis R. Attwood
,
Steven Brown
,
Kirk R. Baker
,
Charles Brock
,
Ronald C. Cohen
,
Sylvia Edgerton
,
Caroline M. Farkas
,
Delphine Farmer
,
Allen H. Goldstein
,
Lynne Gratz
,
Alex Guenther
,
Sherri Hunt
,
Lyatt Jaeglé
,
Daniel A. Jaffe
,
John Mak
,
Crystal McClure
,
Athanasios Nenes
,
Thien Khoi Nguyen
,
Jeffrey R. Pierce
,
Suzane de Sa
,
Noelle E. Selin
,
Viral Shah
,
Stephanie Shaw
,
Paul B. Shepson
,
Shaojie Song
,
Jochen Stutz
,
Jason D. Surratt
,
Barbara J. Turpin
,
Carsten Warneke
,
Rebecca A. Washenfelder
,
Paul O. Wennberg
, and
Xianling Zhou

Abstract

The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS), which included the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS); the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study; and the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosols: Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS) study, was deployed in the field from 1 June to 15 July 2013 in the central and eastern United States, and it overlapped with and was complemented by the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign. SAS investigated atmospheric chemistry and the associated air quality and climate-relevant particle properties. Coordinated measurements from six ground sites, four aircraft, tall towers, balloon-borne sondes, existing surface networks, and satellites provide in situ and remotely sensed data on trace-gas composition, aerosol physicochemical properties, and local and synoptic meteorology. Selected SAS findings indicate 1) dramatically reduced NOx concentrations have altered ozone production regimes; 2) indicators of “biogenic” secondary organic aerosol (SOA), once considered part of the natural background, were positively correlated with one or more indicators of anthropogenic pollution; and 3) liquid water dramatically impacted particle scattering while biogenic SOA did not. SAS findings suggest that atmosphere–biosphere interactions modulate ambient pollutant concentrations through complex mechanisms and feedbacks not yet adequately captured in atmospheric models. The SAS dataset, now publicly available, is a powerful constraint to develop predictive capability that enhances model representation of the response and subsequent impacts of changes in atmospheric composition to changes in emissions, chemistry, and meteorology.

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Chelsea R. Thompson
,
Steven C. Wofsy
,
Michael J. Prather
,
Paul A. Newman
,
Thomas F. Hanisco
,
Thomas B. Ryerson
,
David W. Fahey
,
Eric C. Apel
,
Charles A. Brock
,
William H. Brune
,
Karl Froyd
,
Joseph M. Katich
,
Julie M. Nicely
,
Jeff Peischl
,
Eric Ray
,
Patrick R. Veres
,
Siyuan Wang
,
Hannah M. Allen
,
Elizabeth Asher
,
Huisheng Bian
,
Donald Blake
,
Ilann Bourgeois
,
John Budney
,
T. Paul Bui
,
Amy Butler
,
Pedro Campuzano-Jost
,
Cecilia Chang
,
Mian Chin
,
Róisín Commane
,
Gus Correa
,
John D. Crounse
,
Bruce Daube
,
Jack E. Dibb
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
James W. Elkins
,
Arlene M. Fiore
,
Clare M. Flynn
,
Hao Guo
,
Samuel R. Hall
,
Reem A. Hannun
,
Alan Hills
,
Eric J. Hintsa
,
Alma Hodzic
,
Rebecca S. Hornbrook
,
L. Greg Huey
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Ralph F. Keeling
,
Michelle J. Kim
,
Agnieszka Kupc
,
Forrest Lacey
,
Leslie R. Lait
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Junhua Liu
,
Kathryn McKain
,
Simone Meinardi
,
David O. Miller
,
Stephen A. Montzka
,
Fred L. Moore
,
Eric J. Morgan
,
Daniel M. Murphy
,
Lee T. Murray
,
Benjamin A. Nault
,
J. Andrew Neuman
,
Louis Nguyen
,
Yenny Gonzalez
,
Andrew Rollins
,
Karen Rosenlof
,
Maryann Sargent
,
Gregory Schill
,
Joshua P. Schwarz
,
Jason M. St. Clair
,
Stephen D. Steenrod
,
Britton B. Stephens
,
Susan E. Strahan
,
Sarah A. Strode
,
Colm Sweeney
,
Alexander B. Thames
,
Kirk Ullmann
,
Nicholas Wagner
,
Rodney Weber
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Paul O. Wennberg
,
Christina J. Williamson
,
Glenn M. Wolfe
, and
Linghan Zeng

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission and a summary of selected scientific findings to date. ATom was an airborne measurements and modeling campaign aimed at characterizing the composition and chemistry of the troposphere over the most remote regions of the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans, and examining the impact of anthropogenic and natural emissions on a global scale. These remote regions dominate global chemical reactivity and are exceptionally important for global air quality and climate. ATom data provide the in situ measurements needed to understand the range of chemical species and their reactions, and to test satellite remote sensing observations and global models over large regions of the remote atmosphere. Lack of data in these regions, particularly over the oceans, has limited our understanding of how atmospheric composition is changing in response to shifting anthropogenic emissions and physical climate change. ATom was designed as a global-scale tomographic sampling mission with extensive geographic and seasonal coverage, tropospheric vertical profiling, and detailed speciation of reactive compounds and pollution tracers. ATom flew the NASA DC-8 research aircraft over four seasons to collect a comprehensive suite of measurements of gases, aerosols, and radical species from the remote troposphere and lower stratosphere on four global circuits from 2016 to 2018. Flights maintained near-continuous vertical profiling of 0.15–13-km altitudes on long meridional transects of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Analysis and modeling of ATom data have led to the significant early findings highlighted here.

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