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CHARLES F. BROOKS

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

SYNOPSIS

Long-range forecasts are so much desired that any number of unqualified persons issue them without regard for criteria of performance. Among what might be called “fake” forecasts are the almanac, astrological, pseudosolar, and “mathematical” sorts, many of them calamity howls. The “prediction” of climatic normals, forecasts from phenomena on certain dates and from the behavior or aspects of certain animals or plants also belong in this category.

To be of value a forecast must be specific, limited as to place and time, and it must have a probability of more than chance verification. Furthermore, the economic consequences of failures, both in the long run and in a small sequence of years, must be reckoned. A forecast that will not hit the mark four times out of five, or at least once out of every three in succession, can not be of much value, though some claim that a forecast verified only three times out of five would be useful. The uncertainties of meteorological relationships on which any long-range forecasts can now be based are generally too great to permit reputable meteorologists to forecast on expectations of less than 75 or 80 per cent verification. A critical study of the methods now used in the attempts at scientific long-range weather forecasting and an evaluation of their relative merits for different parts of the world is much needed.

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

The appearance of mammato-cumulus clouds, whether formed at high or low levels, shows that they are formed by local downward thrusts of air. Those associated with overflow sheets of thunderstorms are obviously formed of snow, which accounts for the slowness with which they change shape. While minor developments are not uncommon. the large, well-developed festoons of this class are associated only with the most severe thunderstorms.

On the boundary between two general winds, interference and initial condensation of moisture as a result of the projection of masses of the upper mammato-cumulus into the lower wind, occasionally form. If the upper wind is the colder, convection quickly destroys the mammato formation. If the lower current is already cloudy, cold air from above, especially if dry, may blow “cheese holes” through it.

The most impressive mammato-cumulus is the low, downward boiling cloud surface which marks the top of a cool, squall wind.

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CHARLES F. BROOKS

Abstract

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