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  • Author or Editor: Caio A. S. Coelho x
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Caio A. S. Coelho and Lisa Goddard

Abstract

El Niño brings widespread drought (i.e., precipitation deficit) to the tropics. Stronger or more frequent El Niño events in the future and/or their intersection with local changes in the mean climate toward a future with reduced precipitation would exacerbate drought risk in highly vulnerable tropical areas. Projected changes in El Niño characteristics and associated teleconnections are investigated between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. For climate change models that reproduce realistic oceanic variability of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, results suggest no robust changes in the strength or frequency of El Niño events. These models exhibit realistic patterns, magnitude, and spatial extent of El Niño–induced drought patterns in the twentieth century, and the teleconnections are not projected to change in the twenty-first century, although a possible slight reduction in the spatial extent of droughts is indicated over the tropics as a whole. All model groups investigated show similar changes in mean precipitation for the end of the twenty-first century, with increased precipitation projected between 10°S and 10°N, independent of the ability of the models to replicate ENSO variability. These results suggest separability between climate change and ENSO-like climate variability in the tropics. As El Niño–induced precipitation drought patterns are not projected to change, the observed twentieth-century variability is used in combination with model-projected changes in mean precipitation for assessing year-to-year drought risk in the twenty-first century. Results suggest more locally consistent changes in regional drought risk among models with good fidelity in reproducing ENSO variability.

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Mxolisi E. Shongwe, Christopher A. T. Ferro, Caio A. S. Coelho, and Geert Jan van Oldenborgh

Abstract

The seasonal predictability of cold spring seasons (March–May) in Europe from hindcasts/forecasts of three operational coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is investigated. The models used in the investigation are the Met Office Global Seasonal Forecast System (GloSea), the ECMWF System-2 (S2), and the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS). Using the relative operating characteristic score and the Brier skill score the long-term prediction skill for spring 2-m temperature in the lower quintile (20%) is assessed. Over much of central and eastern Europe the predictive skill is found to be high. The skill of the Met Office GloSea and ECMWF S2 models significantly surpasses that of damped persistence over much of Europe but the NCEP CFS model outperforms this reference forecast only over a small area. The higher potential predictability of cold spring seasons in eastern relative to southwestern Europe can be attributed to snow effects as areas of high skill closely correspond with the climatological snow line, and snow is shown in this paper to be linked to cold spring 2-m temperatures in eastern Europe. The ability of the models to represent snow cover during the melt season is also investigated. The Met Office GloSea and the ECMWF S2 models are able to accurately mimic the observed pattern of monthly snow-cover interannual variability, but the NCEP CFS model predicts too short a snow season. Improvements in the snow analysis and land surface parameterizations could increase the skill of seasonal forecasts for cold spring temperatures.

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Barbara Casati, Manfred Dorninger, Caio A. S. Coelho, Elizabeth E. Ebert, Chiara Marsigli, Marion P. Mittermaier, and Eric Gilleland

Abstract

The International Verification Methods Workshop was held online in November 2020 and included sessions on physical error characterization using process diagnostics and error tracking techniques; exploitation of data assimilation techniques in verification practices, e.g., to address representativeness issues and observation uncertainty; spatial verification methods and the Model Evaluation Tools, as unified reference verification software; and meta-verification and best practices for scores computation. The workshop reached out to diverse research communities working in the areas of high-impact weather, subseasonal to seasonal prediction, polar prediction, and sea ice and ocean prediction. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the workshop and outlines future strategic directions for verification research.

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Nicholas P. Klingaman, Matthew Young, Amulya Chevuturi, Bruno Guimaraes, Liang Guo, Steven J. Woolnough, Caio A. S. Coelho, Paulo Y. Kubota, and Christopher E. Holloway

Abstract

Skillful and reliable predictions of week-to-week rainfall variations in South America, two to three weeks ahead, are essential to protect lives, livelihoods, and ecosystems. We evaluate forecast performance for weekly rainfall in extended austral summer (November–March) in four contemporary subseasonal systems, including a new Brazilian model, at 1–5-week leads for 1999–2010. We measure performance by the correlation coefficient (in time) between predicted and observed rainfall; we measure skill by the Brier skill score for rainfall terciles against a climatological reference forecast. We assess unconditional performance (i.e., regardless of initial condition) and conditional performance based on the initial phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). All models display substantial mean rainfall biases, including dry biases in Amazonia and wet biases near the Andes, which are established by week 1 and vary little thereafter. Unconditional performance extends to week 2 in all regions except for Amazonia and the Andes, but to week 3 only over northern, northeastern, and southeastern South America. Skill for upper- and lower-tercile rainfall extends only to week 1. Conditional performance is not systematically or significantly higher than unconditional performance; ENSO and MJO events provide limited “windows of opportunity” for improved S2S predictions that are region and model dependent. Conditional performance may be degraded by errors in predicted ENSO and MJO teleconnections to regional rainfall, even at short lead times.

Open access
Eduardo S. P. R. Martins, Caio A. S. Coelho, Rein Haarsma, Friederike E. L. Otto, Andrew D. King, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Sarah Kew, Sjoukje Philip, Francisco C. Vasconcelos Júnior, and Heidi Cullen
Open access
Jessica C. A. Baker, Dayana Castilho de Souza, Paulo Y. Kubota, Wolfgang Buermann, Caio A. S. Coelho, Martin B. Andrews, Manuel Gloor, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Silvio N. Figueroa, and Dominick V. Spracklen

Abstract

In South America, land–atmosphere interactions have an important impact on climate, particularly the regional hydrological cycle, but detailed evaluation of these processes in global climate models has been limited. Focusing on the satellite-era period of 2003–14, we assess land–atmosphere interactions on annual to seasonal time scales over South America in satellite products, a novel reanalysis (ERA5-Land), and two global climate models: the Brazilian Global Atmospheric Model version 1.2 (BAM-1.2) and the U.K. Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 3 (HadGEM3). We identify key features of South American land–atmosphere interactions represented in satellite and model datasets, including seasonal variation in coupling strength, large-scale spatial variation in the sensitivity of evapotranspiration to surface moisture, and a dipole in evaporative regime across the continent. Differences between products are also identified, with ERA5-Land, HadGEM3, and BAM-1.2 showing opposite interactions to satellites over parts of the Amazon and the Cerrado and stronger land–atmosphere coupling along the North Atlantic coast. Where models and satellites disagree on the strength and direction of land–atmosphere interactions, precipitation biases and misrepresentation of processes controlling surface soil moisture are implicated as likely drivers. These results show where improvement of model processes could reduce uncertainty in the modeled climate response to land-use change, and highlight where model biases could unrealistically amplify drying or wetting trends in future climate projections. Finally, HadGEM3 and BAM-1.2 are consistent with the median response of an ensemble of nine CMIP6 models, showing they are broadly representative of the latest generation of climate models.

Open access
Friederike E. L. Otto, Karsten Haustein, Peter Uhe, Caio A. S. Coelho, Jose Antonio Aravequia, Waldenio Almeida, Andrew King, Erin Coughlan de Perez, Yoshihide Wada, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Rein Haarsma, Maarten van Aalst, and Heidi Cullen
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Howard J. Diamond, Carl J. Schreck III, Emily J. Becker, Gerald D. Bell, Eric S. Blake, Stephanie Bond, Francis G. Bringas, Suzana J. Camargo, Lin Chen, Caio A. S. Coelho, Ricardo Domingues, Stanley B. Goldenberg, Gustavo Goni, Nicolas Fauchereau, Michael S. Halpert, Qiong He, Philip J. Klotzbach, John A. Knaff, Michelle L'Heureux, Chris W. Landsea, I.-I. Lin, Andrew M. Lorrey, Jing-Jia Luo, Kyle MacRitchie, Andrew D. Magee, Ben Noll, Richard J. Pasch, Alexandre B. Pezza, Matthew Rosencrans, Michael K. Tippet, Blair C. Trewin, Ryan E. Truchelut, Bin Wang, Hui Wang, Kimberly M. Wood, John-Mark Woolley, and Steven H. Young
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Stephen Baxter, Gerald D Bell, Eric S Blake, Francis G Bringas, Suzana J Camargo, Lin Chen, Caio A. S Coelho, Ricardo Domingues, Stanley B Goldenberg, Gustavo Goni, Nicolas Fauchereau, Michael S Halpert, Qiong He, Philip J Klotzbach, John A Knaff, Michelle L'Heureux, Chris W Landsea, I.-I Lin, Andrew M Lorrey, Jing-Jia Luo, Andrew D Magee, Richard J Pasch, Petra R Pearce, Alexandre B Pezza, Matthew Rosencrans, Blair C Trewin, Ryan E Truchelut, Bin Wang, H Wang, Kimberly M Wood, and John-Mark Woolley
Free access
Christopher J. White, Daniela I. V. Domeisen, Nachiketa Acharya, Elijah A. Adefisan, Michael L. Anderson, Stella Aura, Ahmed A. Balogun, Douglas Bertram, Sonia Bluhm, David J. Brayshaw, Jethro Browell, Dominik Büeler, Andrew Charlton-Perez, Xandre Chourio, Isadora Christel, Caio A. S. Coelho, Michael J. DeFlorio, Luca Delle Monache, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Ana María García-Solórzano, Peter B. Gibson, Lisa Goddard, Carmen González Romero, Richard J. Graham, Robert M. Graham, Christian M. Grams, Alan Halford, W. T. Katty Huang, Kjeld Jensen, Mary Kilavi, Kamoru A. Lawal, Robert W. Lee, David MacLeod, Andrea Manrique-Suñén, Eduardo S. P. R. Martins, Carolyn J. Maxwell, William J. Merryfield, Ángel G. Muñoz, Eniola Olaniyan, George Otieno, John A. Oyedepo, Lluís Palma, Ilias G. Pechlivanidis, Diego Pons, F. Martin Ralph, Dirceu S. Reis Jr., Tomas A. Remenyi, James S. Risbey, Donald J. C. Robertson, Andrew W. Robertson, Stefan Smith, Albert Soret, Ting Sun, Martin C. Todd, Carly R. Tozer, Francisco C. Vasconcelos Jr., Ilaria Vigo, Duane E. Waliser, Fredrik Wetterhall, and Robert G. Wilson

Abstract

The subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) predictive timescale, encompassing lead times ranging from 2 weeks to a season, is at the frontier of forecasting science. Forecasts on this timescale provide opportunities for enhanced application-focused capabilities to complement existing weather and climate services and products. There is, however, a ‘knowledge-value’ gap, where a lack of evidence and awareness of the potential socio-economic benefits of S2S forecasts limits their wider uptake. To address this gap, here we present the first global community effort at summarizing relevant applications of S2S forecasts to guide further decision-making and support the continued development of S2S forecasts and related services. Focusing on 12 sectoral case studies spanning public health, agriculture, water resource management, renewable energy and utilities, and emergency management and response, we draw on recent advancements to explore their application and utility. These case studies mark a significant step forward in moving from potential to actual S2S forecasting applications. We show that by placing user needs at the forefront of S2S forecast development – demonstrating both skill and utility across sectors – this dialogue can be used to help promote and accelerate the awareness, value and co-generation of S2S forecasts. We also highlight that while S2S forecasts are increasingly gaining interest among users, incorporating probabilistic S2S forecasts into existing decision-making operations is not trivial. Nevertheless, S2S forecasting represents a significant opportunity to generate useful, usable and actionable forecast applications for and with users that will increasingly unlock the potential of this forecasting timescale.

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