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  • Author or Editor: Carl F. Schueler x
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Carl F. Schueler and William L. Barnes

Abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) protoflight model has been delivered to the NASA Earth Observing System AM-1 platform project to provide highly calibrated, near daily, global atmosphere, land, and ocean observation in 36 spectral channels. MODIS includes extensive in-flight calibration allowing improved environmental data products addressing the visible–infrared imaging Environmental Data Records required by the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System. NASA is considering Advanced MODIS concepts to dramatically reduce MODIS mass, power, and volume. Alternatively, next-generation MODIS Light options can substantially reduce MODIS cost, mass, power, and size but retain the core MODIS optical bench assembly spectroradiometric sensing subsystem to minimize both performance risk and changes to the data processing algorithms. These MODIS Light options range from in-flight calibration hardware removal to instrument repackaging and scanner redesign. The simplest modification results in a 17% mass reduction, while scanner redesign results in 40% mass and volume reduction.

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Thomas F. Lee, Steven D. Miller, Carl Schueler, and Shawn Miller

Abstract

The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), scheduled to fly on the satellites of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System, will combine the missions of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which flies on current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites, and the Operational Linescan System aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites. VIIRS will offer a number of improvements to weather forecasters. First, because of a sophisticated downlink and relay system, VIIRS latencies will be 30 min or less around the globe, improving the timeliness and therefore the operational usefulness of the images. Second, with 22 channels, VIIRS will offer many more products than its predecessors. As an example, a true-color simulation is shown using data from the Earth Observing System’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), an application current geostationary imagers cannot produce because of a missing “green” wavelength channel. Third, VIIRS images will have improved quality. Through a unique pixel aggregation strategy, VIIRS pixels will not expand rapidly toward the edge of a scan like those of MODIS or AVHRR. Data will retain nearly the same resolution at the edge of the swath as at nadir. Graphs and image simulations depict the improvement in output image quality. Last, the NexSat Web site, which provides near-real-time simulations of VIIRS products, is introduced.

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Thomas E. Lee, Steven D. Miller, F. Joseph Turk, Carl Schueler, Richard Julian, Steve Deyo, Patrick Dills, and Sherwood Wang

The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) will feature the Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), a 22-channel imager that will contribute to nearly half of the NPOESS environmental data records. Included on VIIRS will be the Day/Night band (DNB), a visible channel designed to image the Earth and its atmosphere in all conditions ranging from bright solar illumination, to nocturnal lunar illumination, and negligible external illumination. Drawing heritage from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) instruments orbiting since the late 1960s, the DNB will be used to detect clouds at night, understand patterns of urban development based on the emissions of cities, monitor fires, and image scenes of snow and ice at the surface of the Earth. Thanks to significant engineering improvements, the DNB will produce superior capabilities to the OLS for a number of new applications.

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Michael I. Mishchenko, Brian Cairns, Greg Kopp, Carl F. Schueler, Bryan A. Fafaul, James E. Hansen, Ronald J. Hooker, Tom Itchkawich, Hal B. Maring, and Larry D. Travis

The NASA Glory mission is intended to facilitate and improve upon long-term monitoring of two key forcings influencing global climate. One of the mission's principal objectives is to determine the global distribution of detailed aerosol and cloud properties with unprecedented accuracy, thereby facilitating the quantification of the aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. The other is to continue the 28-yr record of satellite-based measurements of total solar irradiance from which the effect of solar variability on the Earth's climate is quantified. These objectives will be met by flying two state-of-the-art science instruments on an Earth-orbiting platform. Based on a proven technique demonstrated with an aircraft-based prototype, the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) will collect accurate multiangle photopolarimetric measurements of the Earth along the satellite ground track within a wide spectral range extending from the visible to the shortwave infrared. The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) is an improved version of an instrument currently flying on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) and will provide accurate and precise measurements of spectrally integrated sunlight illuminating the Earth. Because Glory is expected to fly as part of the A-Train constellation of Earth-orbiting spacecraft, the APS data will also be used to improve retrievals of aerosol climate forcing parameters and global aerosol assessments with other A-Train instruments. In this paper, we detail the scientific rationale and objectives of the Glory mission, explain how these scientific objectives dictate the specific measurement strategy, describe how the measurement strategy will be implemented by the APS and TIM, and briefly outline the overall structure of the mission. It is expected that the Glory results will be used extensively by members of the climate, solar, atmospheric, oceanic, and environmental research communities as well as in education and outreach activities.

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