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  • Author or Editor: Carolina M. L. Camargo x
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Cátia C. Azevedo, Carolina M. L. Camargo, José Alves, and Rui M. A. Caldeira

Abstract

The interaction between the incoming winds and high mountainous islands produces a wind-sheltered area on the leeward side, known as the atmospheric wake. In addition to weaker winds, the wake is also characterized by a clearing of clouds, resulting in intense solar radiation reaching the sea surface. As a consequence, a warm oceanic wake forms on the leeward side. This phenomenon, detectable from space, can extend 100 km offshore of Madeira, where the sea surface temperature can be 4°C higher than the surrounding oceanic waters. This study considers in situ, remote sensing, and ocean circulation model data to investigate the effects of the warm wake in the vertical structure of the upper ocean. To characterize the convective layer (25–70 m) developing within the oceanic wake, 200 vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbulence were considered, together with the computation of the density ratio and Turner angle. In comparison with the open-ocean water column, wake waters are strongly stratified with respect to temperature, although highly unstable. The vertical profiles of salinity show distinct water parcels that sink and/or rise as a response to the intense heat fluxes. During the night, the ocean surface cools, leading to the stretching of the mixed layer, which was replicated by the ocean circulation model. In exposed, nonwake regions, however, particularly on the southeast and north coasts of the island, the stretching of the mixed layer is not detectable.

Open access
Tim H. J. Hermans, Caroline A. Katsman, Carolina M. L. Camargo, Gregory G. Garner, Robert E. Kopp, and Aimée B. A. Slangen

Abstract

Projections of relative sea level change (RSLC) are commonly reported at an annual mean basis. The seasonality of RSLC is often not considered, even though it may modulate the impacts of annual mean RSLC. Here, we study seasonal differences in twenty-first-century ocean dynamic sea level change (DSLC; 2081–2100 minus 1995–2014) on the Northwestern European Shelf (NWES) and their drivers, using an ensemble of 33 CMIP6 models complemented with experiments performed with a regional ocean model. For the high-end emissions scenario SSP5–8.5, we find substantial seasonal differences in ensemble mean DSLC, especially in the southeastern North Sea. For example, at Esbjerg (Denmark), winter mean DSLC is on average 8.4 cm higher than summer mean DSLC. Along all coasts on the NWES, DSLC is higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. For the low-end emissions scenario SSP1–2.6, these seasonal differences are smaller. Our experiments indicate that the changes in winter and summer sea level anomalies are mainly driven by regional changes in wind stress anomalies, which are generally southwesterly and east-northeasterly over the NWES, respectively. In spring and autumn, regional wind stress changes play a smaller role. We also show that CMIP6 models not resolving currents through the English Channel cannot accurately simulate the effect of seasonal wind stress changes on the NWES. Our results imply that using projections of annual mean RSLC may underestimate the projected changes in extreme coastal sea levels in spring and winter. Additionally, changes in the seasonal sea level cycle may affect groundwater dynamics and the inundation characteristics of intertidal ecosystems.

Open access