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YaoKun Li and JiPing Chao

Abstract

Based on the hydrostatic, incompressible Boussinesq equations in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), the three-dimensional sea–land breeze (SLB) circulation has been elegantly expressed as functions of the surface temperature distribution. The horizontal distribution of the horizontal or vertical motion is determined by the first or second derivative of the surface temperature distribution. For symmetric land–sea and temperature distribution, the full strength of the sea breeze occurs inland but not at the coastline, and the maximum updraft associates with the heating center. Setting the temperature difference between land and sea (TDLS), which varies with the island size, there would exist an optimal island size corresponding to the strongest SLB circulation that weakens with both a larger and smaller island size. Each velocity component approaches a peak at a certain vertical level. Both the peak value and the corresponding vertical level link with the vertical scale of the surface temperature: the more significant the influence of the surface temperature vertically, the stronger the SLB circulation at a higher vertical level it induces. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model's ideal simulation for the two-dimensional sea breeze is applied to verify the theory. Two cases, land breeze and sea breeze, further support the theory's results despite a certain slight discrepancy due to the highly simplified theoretical equations.

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Chao He, Tim Li, and Wen Zhou

Abstract

Summer monsoon rainfall supplies over 55% of annual precipitation to global monsoon regions. As shown by more than 70% of models, including 30 models from CMIP5 and 30 models from CMIP6 under high-emission scenarios, North American (NAM) monsoon rainfall decreases in a warmer climate, in sharp contrast to the robust increase in Asian–African monsoon rainfall. A hierarchy of model experiments is analyzed to understand the mechanism for the reduced NAM monsoon rainfall in this study. Modeling evidence shows that the reduction of NAM monsoon rainfall is related to both direct radiative forcing of increased CO2 concentration and SST warming, manifested as fast and slow responses to abrupt CO2 quadrupling in coupled GCMs. A cyclone anomaly forms over the Eurasian–African continental area due to enhanced land–sea thermal contrast under increased CO2 concentration, and this leads to a subsidence anomaly on its western flank, suppressing the NAM monsoon rainfall. The SST warming acts to further reduce the rainfall over the NAM monsoon region, and the El Niño–like SST warming pattern with enhanced SST warming over the equatorial Pacific plays a key role in suppressing NAM rainfall, whereas relative cooling over the subtropical North Atlantic has no contribution. A positive feedback between monsoon precipitation and atmospheric circulation helps to amplify the responses of monsoon rainfall.

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Siyan Dong, Ying Sun, and Chao Li

Abstract

This paper examines the possible influence of external forcings on observed changes in precipitation extremes in the mid-to-high latitudes of Asia during 1958–2012 and attempts to identify particular extreme precipitation indices on which there are better chances to detect the influence of external forcings. We compare a recently compiled dataset of observed extreme indices with those from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulations using an optimal fingerprinting method. We consider six indices that characterize different aspects of extreme precipitation, including annual maximum amount of precipitation falling in 1 day (Rx1day) or 5 days (Rx5day), the total amount of precipitation from the top 5% or top 1% daily amount on wet days, and the fraction of the annual total precipitation from these events. For single-signal analysis, the fingerprints of external forcings including anthropogenic agents are robustly detected in most studied extreme indices over all Asia and for midlatitude Asia but not for high-latitude Asia. For two-signal analysis, anthropogenic influence is detectable in these indices over Asia at 5% or slightly less than 5% significance level, whereas natural influence is not detectable. In high-latitude Asia, anthropogenic influence is detected only in a fractional index, representing a stark contrast to the midlatitude and full Asia results. We find relatively smaller internal variability and thus higher signal-to-noise ratio in the fractional indices when compared with the other ones. Our results point to the need for studying precipitation extreme indices that are less affected by internal variability while still representing the relevant nature of precipitation extremes to improve the possibility of detecting a forced signal if one is present in the data.

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Zhijin Li, Yi Chao, and James C. McWilliams

Abstract

An algorithm is proposed for the computation of streamfunction and velocity potential from given horizontal velocity vectors based on solving a minimization problem. To guarantee the uniqueness of the solution and computational reliability of the algorithm, a Tikhonov regularization is applied. The solution implies that the obtained streamfunction and velocity potential have minimal magnitude, while the given velocity vectors can be accurately reconstructed from the computed streamfunction and velocity potential. Because the formulation of the minimization problem allows for circumventing the explicit specification of separate boundary conditions on the streamfunction and velocity potential, the algorithm is easily applicable to irregular domains. By using an advanced minimization algorithm with the use of adjoint techniques, the method is computationally efficient and suitable for problems with large dimensions. An example is presented for coastal oceans to illustrate the practical application of the algorithm.

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Chao He, Yuhao Wang, and Tim Li

Abstract

El Niño induces an anomalous easterly wind along the equator and a pair of anomalous anticyclones straddling the equator over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) during the autumn of its developing phase. Based on 30 coupled models participating in CMIP5, these atmospheric circulation anomalies over TIO are substantially weakened by about 12%–13% K−1 under global warming scenarios, associated with a weakened zonal gradient of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly. The mechanism for the response is investigated based on a hierarchy of model experiments. Based on stand-alone atmospheric model experiments under uniform and patterned mean-state SST warming, the atmospheric circulation anomaly over TIO during the autumn of the developing El Niño is also substantially weakened by about 8% K−1 even if the interannual variability of SST remains exactly unchanged, suggesting that the primary cause resides in the atmosphere rather than the SST anomaly. The tropospheric static stability is robustly enhanced under global warming, and experiments performed by a linear baroclinic model show that a much weaker atmospheric circulation anomaly over TIO is stimulated by an unchanged diabatic heating anomaly under a more stable atmosphere. The weakened atmospheric circulation anomaly due to enhanced static stability weakens the zonal gradient of the SST anomaly within TIO through local air–sea interaction, and it acts to further weaken the atmospheric circulation anomaly. The enhanced static stability of the troposphere is probably the primary cause and the air–sea interaction within TIO is a secondary cause for the weakened impact of the developing El Niño on atmospheric circulation variability over TIO.

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Yuhao Wang, Chao He, and Tim Li

Abstract

El Niño stimulates an anomalous cyclone over the North Pacific during its developing phase. Using 30 CGCMs and 11 AGCMs from CMIP5, we find a weakly strengthened anomalous North Pacific cyclone (NPC) in a warmer climate in CGCMs, and intermodel uncertainty exists. A similar change of the anomalous NPC is found in AGCMs with increased mean state SST but with a stronger amplitude of enhancement. Based on a simple Gill model, the diabatic heating anomaly, mean state static stability, and meridional gradient of relative vorticity are identified to be responsible for the change of the anomalous NPC. Analyses of the CMIP5 models suggest that the change of the anomalous NPC is largely determined by the competition between the enhanced diabatic heating anomaly and the enhanced mean state static stability. The amplitude of enhancement of the anomalous NPC is strongly modulated by the change of precipitation anomaly over the equatorial central-eastern Pacific, which depends on the changes of mean state SST and the El Niño–related SST anomaly. Compared with a uniform warming, an El Niño–like mean state SST warming favors a much stronger enhancement of the anomalous NPC, by enhancing the mean state precipitation and latent heating anomaly associated with the precipitation anomaly over the equatorial Pacific. However, the air–sea coupling acts to weaken the SST anomaly associated with El Niño in the CGCMs, which further reduces the enhancement of the anomalous NPC.

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Chao He, Tianjun Zhou, and Tim Li

Abstract

The western North Pacific subtropical anticyclone (WNPAC) is the most prominent atmospheric circulation anomaly over the subtropical Northern Hemisphere during the decaying summer of an El Niño event. Based on a comparison between the RCP8.5 and the historical experiments of 30 coupled models from the CMIP5, we show evidence that the anomalous WNPAC during the El Niño–decaying summer is weaker in a warmer climate although the amplitude of the El Niño remains generally unchanged. The weakened impact of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) on the atmosphere is essential for the weakened anomalous WNPAC. In a warmer climate, the warm tropospheric temperature (TT) anomaly in the tropical free troposphere stimulated by the El Niño–related SSTA is enhanced through stronger moist adiabatic adjustment in a warmer mean state, even if the SSTA of El Niño is unchanged. But the amplitude of the warm SSTA over TIO remains generally unchanged in an El Niño–decaying summer, the static stability of the boundary layer over TIO is increased, and the positive rainfall anomaly over TIO is weakened. As a result, the warm Kelvin wave emanating from TIO is weakened because of a weaker latent heating anomaly over TIO, which is responsible for the weakened WNPAC anomaly. Numerical experiments support the weakened sensitivity of precipitation anomaly over TIO to local SSTA under an increase of mean-state SST and its essential role in the weakened anomalous WNPAC, independent of any change in the SSTA.

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Chong Wu, Liping Liu, Xi Liu, Guocui Li, and Chao Chen

Abstract

In the summer of 2016, one phased-array radar and two polarimetric weather radars, representative of advancing radar technology in use in China, jointly collected data in the Foshan area to study severe convective storms in southern China. After an introduction to the technical characteristics and a verification of the radar calibration, the advantages of the abovementioned dual-polarization and phased-array radars are discussed in terms of an observational analysis of a supercell that occurred on 9 May 2016. The polarimetric signatures within the supercell are associated with specific microphysical processes that can reveal different stages of storm evolution. The hydrometeor classification algorithm is a more straightforward and useful method for nowcasting than conventional algorithms, which makes it favorable for further recommendation in China. During the mature and dissipating stages of this supercell, observations of the phased-array radar show detailed changes on short time scales that cannot be observed by parabolic-antenna radars. The initiation and mergers of new convective cells are found in the peak inflow region, and the formation and dissipation of the hook echo are associated with the relative intensities of inflow and outflow. The abovementioned results demonstrate that the phased-array radar and dual-polarization radars recently developed in China are powerful tools to better understand storm evolution for nowcasting and scientific studies.

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Yi Chao, Zhijin Li, John D. Farrara, and Peter Hung

Abstract

A two-dimensional variational data assimilation (2DVAR) method for blending sea surface temperature (SST) data from multiple observing platforms is presented. This method produces continuous fields and has the capability of blending multiple satellite and in situ observations. In addition, it allows specification of inhomogeneous and anisotropic background correlations, which are common features of coastal ocean flows. High-resolution (6 km in space and 6 h in time) blended SST fields for August 2003 are produced for a region off the California coast to demonstrate and evaluate the methodology. A comparison of these fields with independent observations showed root-mean-square errors of less than 1°C, comparable to the errors in conventional SST observations. The blended SST fields also clearly reveal the finescale spatial and temporal structures associated with coastal upwelling, demonstrating their utility in the analysis of finescale flows. With the high temporal resolution, the blended SST fields are also used to describe the diurnal cycle. Potential applications of this SST blending methodology in other coastal regions are discussed.

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Chao Li, Dirk Notz, Steffen Tietsche, and Jochem Marotzke

Abstract

To examine the long-term stability of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, idealized simulations are carried out with the climate model ECHAM5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPI-OM). Atmospheric CO2 concentration is increased over 2000 years from preindustrial levels to quadrupling, is then kept constant for 5940 years, is afterward decreased over 2000 years to preindustrial levels, and is finally kept constant for 3940 years.

Despite these very slow changes, the sea ice response significantly lags behind the CO2 concentration change. This lag, which is caused by the ocean's thermal inertia, implies that the sea ice equilibrium response to increasing CO2 concentration is substantially underestimated by transient simulations. The sea ice response to CO2 concentration change is not truly hysteretic and is in principle reversible.

The authors find no lag in the evolution of Arctic sea ice relative to changes in annual-mean Northern Hemisphere surface temperature. The summer sea ice cover changes linearly with respect to both CO2 concentration and temperature, while the Arctic winter sea ice cover shows a rapid transition to a very low sea ice coverage. This rapid transition of winter sea ice is associated with a sharply enhanced ice–albedo feedback and a sudden onset of convective-cloud feedback in the Arctic.

The Antarctic sea ice cover retreats continuously without any rapid transition during the warming. Compared to Arctic sea ice, Antarctic sea ice shows a much more strongly lagged response to changes in CO2 concentration. It even lags behind the surface temperature change, which is caused by a different response of ocean deep convection during the warming and the cooling periods.

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