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Charles L. Hosler
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Charles L. Hosler
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Paul Kruger and Charles L. Hosler

Abstract

Analysis has been made of seven spring and summer convective showers collected at State College, Pa. The data indicate that the ground-level Sr90 concentration in the precipitation is dependent upon the extent of the vertical development of the clouds from which the precipitation originates and the distance of these clouds from the jet stream. These data are contrasted to the data obtained for precipitation resulting from large-scale uplift where the generating level is essentially constant, and the ground-level Sr90 concentration has been shown to be dependent upon the descent experience of the precipitation in failing from the cloud to the ground.

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Charles L. Hosler, D. C. Jensen, and Leon Goldshlak

Abstract

Manipulation of spheres of ice and observations of ice crystals colliding with a fixed crystal under conditions of controlled temperature and vapor pressure have been employed to determine the limiting conditions for the aggregation of ice crystals to form snow flakes. It is shown that the amount of aggregation is strongly dependent upon environmental vapor pressure and temperature. At ice saturation, no aggregation occurs at temperatures below −25C and aggregation increases and becomes a maximum as 0C is approached. At vapor pressure less-than-ice saturation no aggregation occurs at temperatures below −4C and aggregation increases rapidly as 0C is approached. Under conditions of supersaturation with respect to ice, aggregation occurs at all temperatures. These results are best explained by the existence of a liquid film on the surface of ice at temperatures below 0C where the thickness of the film is a function of temperature and vapor presuure.

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Leonard P. Salter, Paul Kruger, and Charles L. Hosler

Abstract

Analysis has been made of three winter rainstorms, resulting from large-scale uplift, in which the generating level and the precipitation mechanism were essentially constant. The data show that the ground-level Sr90 concentration in the precipitation is determined by the descent experience of the precipitation in falling from the, generating cloud to the ground. The descent experience, can be expressed in terms of the height of the ceiling, which is an index of the humidity profile and depth of the lower layers of air. These parameters affect the rate of evaporation or growth of the precipitation elements and, thus, the final concentration of Sr90 reaching the ground.

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Jorge A. Pena, Rosa G. de Pena, and Charles L. Hosler

Abstract

Water droplets in thermal equilibrium with gases of different solubilities were frozen at temperatures between −4 and −14C, in order to observe the influence of the volume of dissolved gas on the shattering of the droplet.

In air, which has a low solubility in water, no shattering was produced. In methane with a slightly higher solubility, 5% of the droplets shattered. In mixtures of carbon dioxide and air, the frequency of shattering is a function of the temperature and the concentration of carbon dioxide, attaining under the most favorable conditions a value of 40%. However, a large volume of gas is not a sufficient condition to produce shattering. In acetylene, which has nearly the same solubility as carbon dioxide, and in sulfur dioxide, the solubility of which is more than one order higher, shattering was not observed, either in the pure gas or in mixtures with air. When the released gas is readily dissolved in the remaining solution (as for droplets in acetylene or low concentrations of sulfur dioxide) or the gas is separated in a solid phase as a hydrate (as for droplets in high concentrations of sulfur dioxide), the gas does not contribute to an increase of the internal pressure, thus eliminating the possibility of shattering.

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Charles L. Hosler, Marvin D. Burkhart, and Hans Neuberger

Previous, and more recent, comparisons of electronmicroscopic and conventional nuclei counts show that the Aitken counts are deficient. Special experiments revealed that the cause for this deficiency lies in the rapid decay of nuclei in the time lapse between sampling and counting nuclei. It was found that a lapse of 30 seconds reduces the nuclei concentration in the counter by roughly 50%. When this decay is considered, the Aitken and electron microscopic counts can be brought into good agreement.

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Stanley A. Changnon Jr., Howard J. Critchfield, Robert W. Durrenberger, Charles L. Hosler, and Thomas B. McKee

The value of climate data and the information derived from the data still seems to be an unknown to many. Five persons engaged in providing climate services in different U.S. climatic zones have assembled a few widely different examples of recent uses of climate data and information. These help demonstrate the diversity of applications, and the value of the data and of those who can interpret them.

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