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CHARLES R. HOLLIDAY

Abstract

On Nov. 10–11, 1971, 12- and 24-hr reductions of central sea-level pressure of 6.2 and 4.0 mb/hr, respectively, were recorded in typhoon Irma by aircraft reconnaissance. These are considered to be record deepening rates as compared to the previous extremes set by typhoon Ida (September 1958). The validity of the pressure readings is noted, and other observations in the eye region are discussed and compared with features characteristic of deep typhoons.

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Charles R. Holliday

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Charles R. Holliday

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Charles R. Holliday

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CHARLES R. HOLLIDAY

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Charles R. Holliday
and
Aylmer H. Thompson

Abstract

The occurrence of rapid deepening of tropical cyclones(≥42 mb in 24 h) in the western North Pacific is examined to determine the statistics of these events and to identify features peculiar to their onset. Seventy-nine cases of rapid growth during the period 1956-76 were selected to study climatological characteristics. These data show that the majority (75%) of the deep central pressures(≤920 mb) in the region are attained through the rapid deepening process. The bulk (67%) of these pressure reductions occur over a time interval of 18 h or less with the first 6 h most likely to account for the steepest fall.

The statistics reveal that development of a tropical cyclone to typhoon intensity over warm waters (temperature ≥28°C to a depth of 30 m) is a necessary (but not sufficient) prerequisite for rapid deepening. An eye dimension near 40 km also is a frequently observed feature at the onset of rapid deepening. The time of onset occurs most frequently at night. Investigation of typhoon track direction and speed (or changes of these two variables) in relation to abrupt intensificaion revealed little associaion.

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Charles R. Holliday
and
Aylmer H. Thompson

Abstract

Typhoon Kate (1970) formed, developed and reached major (50 m s−1) typhoon intensity while remaining at or equatorward of 5°N, normally considered as the extreme latitude of minimal tropical cyclone formation. The climatology of tropical storms occurring at low latitudes is presented. Details of the behavior of Kate are described. Kate is compared with other western North Pacific storms of record that developed near latitude 5°N.

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Gary D. Atkinson
and
Charles R. Holliday

Abstract

Determining the proper relationship between the minimum sea level pressures and maximum sustained winds in tropical cyclones has been a long-standing problem. The major obstacle has been the lack of sufficient ground truth, i.e., actual measurements of maximum wind speeds in tropical cyclones with a wide range of central pressures. In this study 28 years of maximum wind measurements made at coastal and island stations in the western North Pacific were collected and analyzed. Because of problems in measuring and interpreting sustained surface wind speeds, only recorded peak gust values were used. These peak gust values were reduced to a standard anemometer level of 10 m using a power law relationship and then converted to 1 min sustained wind speeds using gust factors representative of an overwater environment. The sample was restricted to cases where it was reasonably certain that the station experienced the cyclone's winds during its passage. The resulting equation,where p c is the minimum sea level pressure (mb) and V m the maximum sustained (1 min) wind speed (kt), indicates maximum wind speeds that are significantly lower than many previous studies.

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CHARLES R. HOLLIDAY
and
ALLEN F. FLANDERS

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