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Charles R. McClain
,
Norden E. Huang
, and
Leonard J. Pietrafesa

Abstract

The problem of a small-amplitude wave propagating over a flat porous bed is reanalyzed subject to the bottom boundary conditionwhere u represents the horizontal velocity in the fluid,ũ s represents the horizontal velocity within the bed as predicted by Darcey's law, K is the permeability and the subscript 0 denotes evaluation at the bottom (z=0). The term α is a constant whose value depends on the porosity of the bed at the interface and must be determined experimentally. The boundary condition is of the form of a “radiation-type” condition commonly encountered in heat conduction problems.

The important physical quantities (velocity, velocity potential, streamfunction, shear stress and energy dissipation) have been derived and are presented, subject to natural conditions. The bottom boundary layer is represented by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations under the usual boundary layer approximation. It is found that the boundary layer velocity distribution and shear stress can be greatly altered from impermeable bed predictions. Theoretical results for energy dissipation and shear stress are compared to existing data and are found to agree very well. The predictions of classical small-amplitude wave theory are not appreciably modified away from the boundary.

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Raghu Murtugudde
,
James Beauchamp
,
Charles R. McClain
,
Marlon Lewis
, and
Antonio J. Busalacchi

Abstract

The effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation have been investigated with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) with attenuation depths derived from remotely sensed ocean color data. The OGCM is a reduced gravity, primitive equation, sigma coordinate model coupled to an advective atmospheric mixed layer model. These simulations use a single exponential profile for radiation attenuation in the water column, which is quite accurate for OGCMs with fairly coarse vertical resolution. The control runs use an attenuation depth of 17 m while the simulations use spatially variable attenuation depths. When a variable depth oceanic mixed layer is explicitly represented with interactive surface heat fluxes, the results can be counterintuitive. In the eastern equatorial Pacific, a tropical ocean region with one of the strongest biological activity, the realistic attenuation depths result in increased loss of radiation to the subsurface, but result in increased sea surface temperatures (SSTs) compared to the control run. Enhanced subsurface heating leads to weaker stratification, deeper mixed layers, reduced surface divergence, and hence less upwelling and entrainment. Thus, some of the systematic deficiencies in the present-day climate models, such as the colder than observed cold tongue in the equatorial Pacific may simply be related to inaccurate representation of the penetrative radiation and can be improved by the formulation presented here. The differences in ecosystems in each of the tropical oceans are clearly manifested in the manner in which biological heat trapping affects the upper ocean. While the tropical Atlantic has many similarities to the Pacific, the Amazon, Congo, and Niger Rivers' discharges dominate the attenuation of radiation. In the Indian Ocean, elevated biological activity and heat trapping are away from the equator in the Arabian Sea and the southern Tropics. For climate models, in view of their sensitivity to the zonal distribution of SST, using a basin mean of the ocean color–derived attenuation depth reduces the SST errors significantly in the Pacific although they occur in regions of high mean SST and may have potential feedbacks in coupled climate models. On the other hand, the spatial variations of attenuation depths in the Atlantic are crucial since using the basin mean produces significant errors. Thus the simplest and the most economic formulation is to simply employ the annual mean spatially variable attenuation depths derived from ocean color.

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Tom X-P. Zhao
,
Larry L. Stowe
,
Alexander Smirnov
,
David Crosby
,
John Sapper
, and
Charles R. McClain

Abstract

In this paper, a global validation package for satellite aerosol optical thickness retrieval using the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations as ground truth is described. To standardize the validation procedure, the optimum time–space match-up window, the ensemble statistical analysis method, the best selection of AERONET channels, and the numerical scheme used to interpolate/extrapolate these observations to satellite channels have been identified through sensitivity studies. The package is shown to be a unique tool for more objective validation and intercomparison of satellite aerosol retrievals, helping to satisfy an increasingly important requirement of the satellite aerosol remote sensing community. Results of applying the package to the second-generation operational aerosol observational data (AEROBS) from the NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in 1998 and to the same year aerosol observation data [Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System-Single Scanner Foodprint version 4 (CERES-SSF4)] from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) are presented as examples of global validation. The usefulness of the package for identifying improvements to the aerosol optical thickness τ retrieval algorithm is also demonstrated.

The principal causes of systematic errors in the current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval algorithm have been identified and can be reduced significantly, if the correction and adjustment suggested from the global validation are adopted. Random error in the τ retrieval is identified to be a major source of error on deriving the effective Ångström wavelength exponent α and may be associated with regional differences in aerosol particles, which are not accounted for in the current second-generation operational algorithm. Adjustments to the nonaerosol and aerosol radiative transfer model parameters that reduce systematic errors in τ retrievals are suggested for consideration in the next-generation algorithm. Basic features that should be included in the next-generation algorithm to reduce random error in τ retrievals and the resulting error in the effective Ångström wavelength exponent have also been discussed.

Compared to the AERONET observation, the NOAA-14 AVHRR (AEROBS) τ values for mean conditions are biased high by 0.05 and 0.08, with random errors of 0.08 and 0.05, at 0.63 and 0.83 μm, respectively. Correspondingly, the TRMM VIRS (CERES-SSF4) values for mean conditions are biased high by 0.06 and 0.02, with random errors of 0.06 and 0.04 at 0.63 and 1.61 μm, respectively. After corrections and adjustments to the retrieval algorithm, the biases in both channels of AVHRR and VIRS are reduced significantly to values close to zero, although random error is almost unchanged. The α exponent derived directly from the aerosol optical thicknesses (τs) has been shown to be poorly correlated both before and after adjustments, indicating that random error in the τ measurement (possibly related to aerosol model parameter variations or cloud–surface reflectance contamination) needs to be reduced.

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P. Jeremy Werdell
,
Michael J. Behrenfeld
,
Paula S. Bontempi
,
Emmanuel Boss
,
Brian Cairns
,
Gary T. Davis
,
Bryan A. Franz
,
Ulrik B. Gliese
,
Eric T. Gorman
,
Otto Hasekamp
,
Kirk D. Knobelspiesse
,
Antonio Mannino
,
J. Vanderlei Martins
,
Charles R. McClain
,
Gerhard Meister
, and
Lorraine A. Remer

Abstract

The Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, Ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission represents the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) next investment in satellite ocean color and the study of Earth’s ocean–atmosphere system, enabling new insights into oceanographic and atmospheric responses to Earth’s changing climate. PACE objectives include extending systematic cloud, aerosol, and ocean biological and biogeochemical data records, making essential ocean color measurements to further understand marine carbon cycles, food-web processes, and ecosystem responses to a changing climate, and improving knowledge of how aerosols influence ocean ecosystems and, conversely, how ocean ecosystems and photochemical processes affect the atmosphere. PACE objectives also encompass management of fisheries, large freshwater bodies, and air and water quality and reducing uncertainties in climate and radiative forcing models of the Earth system. PACE observations will provide information on radiative properties of land surfaces and characterization of the vegetation and soils that dominate their reflectance. The primary PACE instrument is a spectrometer that spans the ultraviolet to shortwave-infrared wavelengths, with a ground sample distance of 1 km at nadir. This payload is complemented by two multiangle polarimeters with spectral ranges that span the visible to near-infrared region. Scheduled for launch in late 2022 to early 2023, the PACE observatory will enable significant advances in the study of Earth’s biogeochemistry, carbon cycle, clouds, hydrosols, and aerosols in the ocean–atmosphere–land system. Here, we present an overview of the PACE mission, including its developmental history, science objectives, instrument payload, observatory characteristics, and data products.

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