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Guy Pearson, Fay Davies, and Chris Collier


The performance of the 1.5-μm pulsed Doppler lidar, operated by the U.K. Universities Facility for Atmospheric Measurement (UFAM) over a 51-day continuous and unattended field deployment in southern England, is described and analyzed with a view to demonstrating the capabilities of the system for remote measurements of aerosols and velocities in the boundary layer. A statistical assessment of the vertical pointing mode in terms of the availability and errors in the data versus range is presented. Examples of lidar data are compared to theoretical predictions, radiosondes, the UFAM radar wind profiler, and an ultrasonic anemometer.

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Ryan R. Neely III, Louise Parry, David Dufton, Lindsay Bennett, and Chris Collier


The Radar Applications in Northern Scotland (RAiNS) experiment took place from February to August 2016 near Inverness, Scotland. The campaign was motivated by the need to provide enhanced weather radar observations for hydrological applications for the Inverness region. Here we describe the campaign in detail and observations over the summer period of the campaign that show the improvements that high-resolution polarimetric radar observations may have on quantitative precipitation estimates in this region compared to concurrently generated operational radar quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs). We further provide suggestions of methods for generating QPE using dual-polarization X-band radars in similar regions.

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Neil I. Fox, Rob Webb, John Bally, Michael W. Sleigh, Clive E. Pierce, David M. L. Sills, Paul I. Joe, James Wilson, and Chris G. Collier


One of the principal aims of the Sydney 2000 Forecast Demonstration Project was to assess the utility of advanced nowcasting systems to operational severe weather forecasters. This paper describes the application of the products of a variety of systems by forecasters during a severe weather event in Sydney, Australia, on 3 November 2000. During this day a severe storm developed to the south of the metropolitan area and tracked north producing large, damaging hail, heavy rainfall, and at least three tornadoes. A number of severe weather warnings were issued by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to a variety of customers throughout the day.

This paper investigates how the novel nowcast products were used by the forecasters and the impact they had on the forecast and warning dissemination procedure. The products used are contrasted with those that were available or could have been made available at various stages of the storm development and the efficiency of use of these products is discussed. The severe weather forecasters expressed their satisfaction with the systems and believed that the additional information enhanced the quality and timeliness of the warnings issued during the event.

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Chris G. Collier, Fay Davies, Karen E. Bozier, Anthony R. Holt, Doug R. Middleton, Guy N. Pearson, Stephan Siemen, Dave V. Willetts, Graham J. G. Upton, and Rob I. Young

Dispersion of pollutants in the urban atmosphere is a subject that is presently under much investigation. In this paper the variables used in turbulent dispersion and plume rise schemes of the Met Office Nuclear Accident Model (NAME) are discussed. Those parameters that can be measured by Doppler lidar are emphasized. Information derived from simultaneous measurements from two Doppler lidars are presented, using methodologies not tried previously, with the aim of improving the forecasting of urban pollution dispersion. The results demonstrate how Doppler lidars can be used as measuring tools for the specific parameters needed within urban dispersion models. A procedure used for carrying out the dual-lidar measurements is outlined. This research shows how dual-lidar measurements can be used to calculate the relevant dispersion parameters, and compares the dual-lidar measurements with model calculations in a case study. Differences between model parameters and lidar observations are discussed. Dual-Doppler lidar data are extremely useful for measuring turbulence profiles within the part of the atmospheric boundary layer that is inaccessible using traditional methods.

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David C. Leon, Jeffrey R. French, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Alan M. Blyth, Steven J. Abel, Susan Ballard, Andrew Barrett, Lindsay J. Bennett, Keith Bower, Barbara Brooks, Phil Brown, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Thomas Choularton, Peter Clark, Chris Collier, Jonathan Crosier, Zhiqiang Cui, Seonaid Dey, David Dufton, Chloe Eagle, Michael J. Flynn, Martin Gallagher, Carol Halliwell, Kirsty Hanley, Lee Hawkness-Smith, Yahui Huang, Graeme Kelly, Malcolm Kitchen, Alexei Korolev, Humphrey Lean, Zixia Liu, John Marsham, Daniel Moser, John Nicol, Emily G. Norton, David Plummer, Jeremy Price, Hugo Ricketts, Nigel Roberts, Phil D. Rosenberg, David Simonin, Jonathan W. Taylor, Robert Warren, Paul I. Williams, and Gillian Young


The Convective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) was a joint U.K.–U.S. field campaign held during the summer of 2013 in the southwest peninsula of England, designed to study convective clouds that produce heavy rain leading to flash floods. The clouds form along convergence lines that develop regularly as a result of the topography. Major flash floods have occurred in the past, most famously at Boscastle in 2004. It has been suggested that much of the rain was produced by warm rain processes, similar to some flash floods that have occurred in the United States. The overarching goal of COPE is to improve quantitative convective precipitation forecasting by understanding the interactions of the cloud microphysics and dynamics and thereby to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill for forecasts of flash floods. Two research aircraft, the University of Wyoming King Air and the U.K. BAe 146, obtained detailed in situ and remote sensing measurements in, around, and below storms on several days. A new fast-scanning X-band dual-polarization Doppler radar made 360° volume scans over 10 elevation angles approximately every 5 min and was augmented by two Met Office C-band radars and the Chilbolton S-band radar. Detailed aerosol measurements were made on the aircraft and on the ground. This paper i) provides an overview of the COPE field campaign and the resulting dataset, ii) presents examples of heavy convective rainfall in clouds containing ice and also in relatively shallow clouds through the warm rain process alone, and iii) explains how COPE data will be used to improve high-resolution NWP models for operational use.

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Keith A. Browning, Alan M. Blyth, Peter A. Clark, Ulrich Corsmeier, Cyril J. Morcrette, Judith L. Agnew, Sue P. Ballard, Dave Bamber, Christian Barthlott, Lindsay J. Bennett, Karl M. Beswick, Mark Bitter, Karen E. Bozier, Barbara J. Brooks, Chris G. Collier, Fay Davies, Bernhard Deny, Mark A. Dixon, Thomas Feuerle, Richard M. Forbes, Catherine Gaffard, Malcolm D. Gray, Rolf Hankers, Tim J. Hewison, Norbert Kalthoff, Samiro Khodayar, Martin Kohler, Christoph Kottmeier, Stephan Kraut, Michael Kunz, Darcy N. Ladd, Humphrey W. Lean, Jürgen Lenfant, Zhihong Li, John Marsham, James McGregor, Stephan D. Mobbs, John Nicol, Emily Norton, Douglas J. Parker, Felicity Perry, Markus Ramatschi, Hugo M. A. Ricketts, Nigel M. Roberts, Andrew Russell, Helmut Schulz, Elizabeth C. Slack, Geraint Vaughan, Joe Waight, David P. Wareing, Robert J. Watson, Ann R. Webb, and Andreas Wieser

The Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) is an international project to understand precisely where, when, and how convective clouds form and develop into showers in the mainly maritime environment of southern England. A major aim of CSIP is to compare the results of the very high resolution Met Office weather forecasting model with detailed observations of the early stages of convective clouds and to use the newly gained understanding to improve the predictions of the model.

A large array of ground-based instruments plus two instrumented aircraft, from the U.K. National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and the German Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK), Karlsruhe, were deployed in southern England, over an area centered on the meteorological radars at Chilbolton, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. In addition to a variety of ground-based remote-sensing instruments, numerous rawinsondes were released at one- to two-hourly intervals from six closely spaced sites. The Met Office weather radar network and Meteosat satellite imagery were used to provide context for the observations made by the instruments deployed during CSIP.

This article presents an overview of the CSIP field campaign and examples from CSIP of the types of convective initiation phenomena that are typical in the United Kingdom. It shows the way in which certain kinds of observational data are able to reveal these phenomena and gives an explanation of how the analyses of data from the field campaign will be used in the development of an improved very high resolution NWP model for operational use.

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