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Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Chuen-Teyr Terng
, and
Cheng-Ta Chen

Abstract

This study investigates the characteristics of large-scale circulation and heating during the first transition of the Asian summer monsoon by a compositing technique. The first transition is characterized by a sudden change in large-scale atmospheric circulation and convective activity in South and Southeast Asia. The most notable features include 1) the development of the low-level cyclonic circulation and the upper-level anticyclone in South Asia, 2) the strong convection in the Bay of Bengal, the Indochina peninsula, and the South China Sea, and 3) the warming and the subsequent cooling of the SST in the Bay of Bengal.

Results show the close relationship between the fluctuations of atmospheric circulation, heating, and surface condition. It is suggested that the atmospheric circulation abruptly changes during the transition owing to the interaction between convection, large-scale circulation, and lower-boundary forcing that includes topographically lifting ocean and land surface heating.

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Ling-Feng Hsiao
,
Chi-Sann Liou
,
Tien-Chiang Yeh
,
Yong-Run Guo
,
Der-Song Chen
,
Kang-Ning Huang
,
Chuen-Teyr Terng
, and
Jen-Her Chen

Abstract

This paper introduces a relocation scheme for tropical cyclone (TC) initialization in the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model and demonstrates its application to 70 forecasts of Typhoons Sinlaku (2008), Jangmi (2008), and Linfa (2009) for which Taiwan’s Central Weather Bureau (CWB) issued typhoon warnings. An efficient and dynamically consistent TC vortex relocation scheme for the WRF terrain-following mass coordinate has been developed to improve the first guess of the TC analysis, and hence improves the tropical cyclone initialization. The vortex relocation scheme separates the first-guess atmospheric flow into a TC circulation and environmental flow, relocates the TC circulation to its observed location, and adds the relocated TC circulation back to the environmental flow to obtain the updated first guess with a correct TC position. Analysis of these typhoon cases indicates that the relocation procedure moves the typhoon circulation to the observed typhoon position without generating discontinuities or sharp gradients in the first guess.

Numerical experiments with and without the vortex relocation procedure for Typhoons Sinlaku, Jangmi, and Linfa forecasts show that about 67% of the first-guess fields need a vortex relocation to correct typhoon position errors while eliminates the topographical effect. As the vortex relocation effectively removes the typhoon position errors in the analysis, the simulated typhoon tracks are considerably improved for all forecast times, especially in the early periods as large adjustments appeared without the vortex relocation. Comparison of the horizontal and vertical vortex structures shows that large errors in the first-guess fields due to an incorrect typhoon position are eliminated by the vortex relocation scheme and that the analyzed typhoon circulation is stronger and more symmetric without distortions, and better agrees with observations. The result suggests that the main difficulty of objective analysis methods [e.g., three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR)], in TC analysis comes from poor first-guess fields with incorrect TC positions rather than not enough model resolution or observations. In addition, by computing the eccentricity and correlation of the axes of the initial typhoon circulation, the distorted typhoon circulation caused by the position error without the vortex relocation scheme is demonstrated to be responsible for larger track errors. Therefore, by eliminating the typhoon position error in the first guess that avoids a distorted initial typhoon circulation, the vortex relocation scheme is able to improve the ARW-WRF typhoon initialization and forecasts particularly when using data assimilation update cycling.

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Chi–Sann Liou
,
Jen–Her Chen
,
Chuen–Teyr Terng
,
Feng–Ju Wang
,
Chin–Tzu Fong
,
Thomas E. Rosmond
,
Hong–Chi Kuo
,
Chih–Hui Shiao
, and
Ming–Dean Cheng

Abstract

The global forecast system (GFS), which started its operation in 1988 at the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan, has been upgraded to incorporate better numerical methods and more complete parameterization schemes. The second-generation GFS uses multivariate optimum interpolation analysis and incremental nonlinear normal-mode initialization to initialize the forecast model. The forecast model is a global primitive equation model with a resolution of 18 sigma levels in the vertical and 79 waves of triangular truncation in the horizontal. The forecast model includes a 1.5-order eddy mixing parameterization, a gravity wave drag parameterization, a shallow convection parameterization, a relaxed version of Arakawa–Schubert cumulus parameterization, grid-scale condensation calculation, and longwave and shortwave radiative transfer calculations with consideration of fractional clouds. The performance of the second-generation GFS is significantly better than the first-generation GFS. For two 3-month periods in winter 1995/96 and summer 1996, the second-generation GFS provided forecasters with 5-day forecasts where the averaged 500-mb height anomaly correlation coefficients for the Northern Hemisphere were greater than 0.6.

Observational data available to the GFS are much less than those at other numerical weather prediction centers, especially in the Tropics and Southern Hemisphere. The GRID messages of 5° resolution, ECMWF 24-h forecast 500-mb height and 850- and 200-mb wind fields available once a day on the Global Telecommunications System are used as supplemental observations to increase the data coverage for the GFS data assimilation. The supplemental data improve the GFS performance both in the analysis and forecast.

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