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  • Author or Editor: Clinton D. Winant x
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Sabine Harms and Clinton D. Winant


Synthetic subsurface pressure (SSP) can be formed from tide gauge records and from bottom pressure measurements to provide a consistent and convenient basis for comparison of these two different types of observations. Common methods for this estimation are reviewed, and their accuracy is evaluated. Calculations show that subtidal SSP estimates from sea level (SSPSL) and from bottom pressure observations (SSPBP) at close sites agree only in a finite band of frequencies, corresponding to periods between 3.5 and 30 days. At the lower frequencies (periods longer than 30 days), sea level observations are subject to errors induced by the daily measure of staff height. At higher frequencies (periods between 1.5 and 3.5 days), the amplitude of fluctuations is too small to be resolved by a sea level gauge.

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Carl A. Friehe, Robert C. Beardsley, Clinton D. Winant, and Jerome P. Dean


Intercomparisons of meteorological data—wind speed and direction, surface temperature and surface pressure—were obtained for NCAR Queen Air overflights of four buoys during the CODE-1 experiment. The overflights were at a nominal altitude of 33 m. Wind and air temperature sensors were at 10 m on two National Data Buoy Office (NDBO) buoys and at 3.5 m on two Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) buoys. The buoy wind speeds were adjusted to the aircraft altitude using diabatic flux-profile relations and bulk aerodynamic formulas to estimate the surface fluxes and stability. For the experimental period (22 April-23 May 1981) and location (northern coast of California), the atmospheric surface layer was generally stable, with the Monin-Obukhov length on average 500 m with large variability.

The results of the intercomparisons of the above variables were in general good. Average differences (aircraft - buoy) and standard deviations were +0.1 m s−1 (±1.8) for wind speed, 3.3 deg (±11.2) for wind direction, +0.02°C (±1.7) for air temperature and +0.8 mb (+1.0) for surface pressure. The aircraft downward-looking infrared radiometer indicated a surface temperature 1°C lower than the buoy hull (NDBO) and 1 m immersion (WHOI) sea temperature sensors.

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