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Taylor B. Aydell
and
Craig B. Clements

ABSTRACT

Remote sensing techniques have been used to study and track wildfire smoke plume structure and evolution; however, knowledge gaps remain because of the limited availability of observational datasets aimed at understanding fine-scale fire–atmosphere interactions and plume microphysics. Meteorological radars have been used to investigate the evolution of plume rise in time and space, but highly resolved plume observations are limited. In this study, we present a new mobile millimeter-wave (Ka band) Doppler radar system acquired to sample the fine-scale kinematics and microphysical properties of active wildfire smoke plumes from both wildfires and large prescribed fires. Four field deployments were conducted in autumn of 2019 during two wildfires in California and one prescribed burn in Utah. Radar parameters investigated in this study include reflectivity, radial velocity, Doppler spectrum width, differential reflectivity Z DR, and copolarized correlation coefficient ρ HV. Observed radar reflectivity ranged between −15 and 20 dBZ in plume, and radial velocity ranged from 0 to 16 m s−1. Dual-polarimetric observations revealed that scattering sources within wildfire plumes are primarily nonspherical and oblate-shaped targets as indicated by Z DR values measuring above 0 and ρ HV values below 0.8 within the plume. Doppler spectrum width maxima were located near the updraft core region and were associated with radar reflectivity maxima.

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Richard B. Bagley
and
Craig B. Clements

Abstract

The second largest fire shelter deployment in U.S. history occurred in August 2003 during the Devil Fire, which was burning in a remote and rugged region of the San Francisco Bay Area, when relative humidity abruptly dropped in the middle of the night, causing rapid fire growth. Nocturnal drying events in the higher elevations along California’s central coast are a unique phenomenon that poses a great risk to wildland firefighters. Single-digit relative humidity with dewpoints below −25°C is not uncommon during summer nights in this region. To provide the fire management community with knowledge of these hazardous conditions, an event criterion was established to develop a climatology of nocturnal drying and to investigate the synoptic patterns associated with these events. A lower-tropospheric source region of dry air was found over the northeastern Pacific Ocean corresponding to an area of maximum low-level divergence and associated subsidence. This dry air forms above a marine inversion and advects inland overnight with the marine layer and immerses higher-elevation terrain with warm and dry air. An average of 15–20 nocturnal drying events per year occur in elevations greater than 700 m in the San Francisco Bay Area, and their characteristics are highly variable, making them a challenge to forecast.

Open access
Craig B. Clements
and
Andrew J. Oliphant

The California State University Mobile Atmospheric Profiling System (CSU-MAPS) is a shared facility between San Francisco and San José State Universities providing researchers and students state-of-the-art atmospheric profiling measurements that require fast deployments and ease of use. CSU-MAPS is intended for boundary layer field research and comprises a suite of commercially available instruments including micrometeorological sensors mounted on a 32-m extendable tower trailer, a scanning Doppler wind lidar, a microwave temperature–humidity profiler, and upper-air sounding systems. The trailer is towed using a Ford F250 4 × 4 truck equipped with surface weather instrumentation and workstations for operating the lidar and microwave profiler. The flexible design of the measurement system allows for a large range of important research projects to be tackled. To date, the system has been used in four major field experiments. During 2011, CSU-MAPS was deployed to Salt Lake City, Utah, to investigate the behavior of persistent cold-air pools that lead to weeklong periods of extremely poor air quality that frequently exceed national health standards. In 2012, CSU-MAPS was deployed to three wildfire experiments in California, Florida, and Texas. CSU-MAPS has also been used to measure carbon, water, and energy cycling between ecosystems and the atmosphere. In addition, the system has been extensively used as an educational tool. This includes an annual field trip where students from both San José and San Francisco State Universities deploy the system in a mountain valley over the period of a week and analyze the data.

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Neil P. Lareau
and
Craig B. Clements

Abstract

The time-mean and time-varying smoke and velocity structure of a wildfire convective plume is examined using a high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar. The mean plume is shown to exhibit the archetypal form of a bent-over plume in a crosswind, matching the well-established Briggs plume-rise equation. The plume cross section is approximately Gaussian and the plume radius increases linearly with height, consistent with plume-rise theory. The Briggs plume-rise equation is subsequently inverted to estimate the mean fire-generated sensible heat flux, which is found to be 87 kW m−2. The mean radial velocity structure of the plume indicates flow convergence into the plume base and regions of both convective overshoot and sinking flow in the upper plume. The updraft speed in the lower plume is estimated to be 13.5 m s−1 by tracking the leading edge of a convective element ascending through the plume. The lidar data also reveal aspects of entrainment processes during the plume rise. For example, the covariation of the radial velocity and smoke perturbations are shown to dilute the smoke concentration with height.

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Caroline M. Kiefer
,
Craig B. Clements
, and
Brian E. Potter

Abstract

Direct measurements of wildland fire plume properties are rare because of difficult access to regions near the fire front and plume. Moisture released from combustion, in addition to added heat, can enhance buoyancy and convection, influencing fire behavior. In this study, a mini unmanned aircraft system (miniUAS) was used to obtain in situ measurements of temperature and relative humidity during a prescribed fire. The miniUAS was successfully maneuvered through the plume and its associated turbulence and provided observations of temperature and humidity profiles from near the centerline of the plume. Within the plume, the water vapor mixing ratio increased by 0.5–3.5 g kg−1 above ambient and was caused by the combustion of fuels. Potential temperature perturbations were on the order of 2–5 K. These results indicate that significant moisture and temperature enhancement can occur and may potentially modify convection dynamics of fire plumes.

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Craig B. Clements
,
C. David Whiteman
, and
John D. Horel

Abstract

The evolution of potential temperature and wind structure during the buildup of nocturnal cold-air pools was investigated during clear, dry, September nights in Utah's Peter Sinks basin, a 1-km-diameter limestone sinkhole that holds the Utah minimum temperature record of −56°C. The evolution of cold-pool characteristics depended on the strength of prevailing flows above the basin. On an undisturbed day, a 30°C diurnal temperature range and a strong nocturnal potential temperature inversion (22 K in 100 m) were observed in the basin. Initially, downslope flows formed on the basin sidewalls. As a very strong potential temperature jump (17 K) developed at the top of the cold pool, however, the winds died within the basin and over the sidewalls. A persistent turbulent sublayer formed below the jump. Turbulent sensible heat flux on the basin floor became negligible shortly after sunset while the basin atmosphere continued to cool. Temperatures over the slopes, except for a 1–2-m-deep layer, became warmer than over the basin center at the same altitude. Cooling rates for the entire basin near sunset were comparable to the 90 W m−2 rate of loss of net longwave radiation at the basin floor, but these rates decreased to only a few watts per square meter by sunrise. This paper compares the observed cold-pool buildup in basins with inversion buildup in valleys.

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Shiyuan Zhong
,
Ju Li
,
Craig B. Clements
,
Stephan F. J. De Wekker
, and
Xindi Bian

Abstract

This paper investigates the formation mechanisms for a local wind phenomenon known as Washoe Zephyr that occurs frequently in the lee of the Sierra Nevada. Unlike the typical thermally driven slope flows with upslope wind during daytime and downslope at night, the Washoe Zephyr winds blow down the lee slopes of the Sierra Nevada in the afternoon against the local pressure gradient. Long-term hourly surface wind data from several stations on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada and rawinsonde sounding data in the region are analyzed and numerical simulations are performed to test the suggested hypotheses on the formation mechanisms for this interesting phenomenon. The results from surface and upper-air climate data analyses and numerical modeling indicate that the Washoe Zephyr is primarily a result of a regional-scale pressure gradient that develops because of asymmetric heating of the atmosphere between the western side of the Sierra Nevada and the elevated, semiarid central Nevada and Great Basin on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada. The frequent influence of the Pacific high on California in the summer season helps to enhance this pressure gradient and therefore strengthen the flow. Westerly synoptic-scale winds over the Sierra Nevada and the associated downward momentum transfer are not necessary for its development, but strong westerly winds aloft work in concert with the regional-scale pressure gradient to produce the strongest Washoe Zephyr events.

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Warren E. Heilman
,
Tirtha Banerjee
,
Craig B. Clements
,
Kenneth L. Clark
,
Shiyuan Zhong
, and
Xindi Bian

Abstract

The vertical turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in the lower atmospheric boundary layer is accomplished through intermittent sweep, ejection, outward interaction, and inward interaction events associated with turbulent updrafts and downdrafts. These events, collectively referred to as sweep–ejection dynamics, have been studied extensively in forested and nonforested environments and reported in the literature. However, little is known about the sweep–ejection dynamics that occur in response to turbulence regimes induced by wildland fires in forested and nonforested environments. This study attempts to fill some of that knowledge gap through analyses of turbulence data previously collected during three wildland (prescribed) fires that occurred in grassland and forested environments in Texas and New Jersey. Tower-based high-frequency (10 or 20 Hz) three-dimensional wind-velocity and temperature measurements are used to examine frequencies of occurrence of sweep, ejection, outward interaction, and inward interaction events and their actual contributions to the mean vertical turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum before, during, and after the passage of fire fronts. The observational results suggest that wildland fires in these environments can substantially change the sweep–ejection dynamics for turbulent heat and momentum fluxes that typically occur when no fires are present, especially the relative contributions of sweeps versus ejections in determining overall heat and momentum fluxes.

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C. David Whiteman
,
Bernhard Pospichal
,
Stefan Eisenbach
,
Philipp Weihs
,
Craig B. Clements
,
Reinhold Steinacker
,
Erich Mursch-Radlgruber
, and
Manfred Dorninger

Abstract

Comparisons are made between the postsunrise breakup of temperature inversions in two similar closed basins in very different climate settings, one in the eastern Alps and one in the Rocky Mountains. The small, high-altitude, limestone sinkholes have both experienced extreme temperature minima below −50°C and both develop strong nighttime inversions. On undisturbed clear nights, temperature inversions reach to 120-m heights in both sinkholes but are much stronger in the drier Rocky Mountain basin (24 vs 13 K). Inversion destruction takes place 2.6–3 h after sunrise in these basins and is accomplished primarily by subsidence warming associated with the removal of air from the base of the inversion by the upslope flows that develop over heated sidewalls. A conceptual model of this destruction is presented, emphasizing the asymmetry of the boundary layer development around the basin and the effects of solar shading by the surrounding ridgeline. Differences in inversion strengths and postsunrise heating rates between the two basins are caused by differences in the surface energy budget, with drier soil and a higher sensible heat flux in the Rocky Mountain sinkhole. Inversions in the small basins break up more quickly following sunrise than for previously studied valleys. The pattern of inversion breakup in the non-snow-covered basins is the same as that reported in snow-covered Colorado valleys. The similar breakup patterns in valleys and basins suggest that along-valley wind systems play no role in the breakups, since the small basins have no along-valley wind system.

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Craig B. Clements
,
Neil P. Lareau
,
David E. Kingsmill
,
Carrie L. Bowers
,
Chris P. Camacho
,
Richard Bagley
, and
Braniff Davis

Abstract

The Rapid Deployments to Wildfires Experiment (RaDFIRE) was a meteorological field campaign aimed at observing fire–atmosphere interactions during active wildfires. Using a rapidly deployable scanning Doppler lidar, airborne Doppler radar, and a suite of other instruments, the field campaign sampled 21 wildfires from 2013 to 2016 in the western United States. Observations include rotating convective plumes, plume interactions with stable layers and multilayered smoke detrainment, convective plume entrainment processes, smoke-induced density currents, and aircraft in situ observations of developing pyrocumulus. Collectively, these RaDFIRE observations highlight the range of meteorological phenomena associated with wildfires, especially plume dynamics, and will provide a valuable dataset for the modeling community.

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