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  • Author or Editor: Cristina Cadavid x
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Alexander Ruzmaikin, John Lawrence, and Cristina Cadavid


A simple dynamic model, truncated from the stratospheric wave–zonal flow interaction Holton and Mass model, is introduced and studied. This model consists of three ordinary differential equations controlled by two parameters: the initial amplitude of planetary waves and the vertical gradient of the zonal wind. The changes associated with seasonal variations and with the solar variability are introduced as periodic modulations of the zonal wind gradient. The major climatic response to these changes is seen through modulation of the number of cold and warm winters.

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