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Eric G. Moody, Michael D. King, Crystal B. Schaaf, and Steven Platnick

Abstract

Five years (2000–04) of spatially complete snow-free land surface albedo data have been produced using high-quality-flagged diffuse bihemispherical (white sky) and direct-beam directional hemispherical (black sky) land surface albedo data derived from observations taken by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite platform (MOD43B3, collection 4). In addition, a spatially complete snow-free aggregate albedo climatological product was generated. These spatially complete products were prepared using an ecosystem-dependent temporal interpolation technique that retrieves missing data within 3%–8% error. These datasets have already been integrated into research and operational projects that require snow-free land surface albedo. As such, this paper provides details regarding the spatial and temporal distribution of the filled versus the original MOD43B3 data. The paper also explores the intra- and interannual variation in the 5-yr data record and provides a qualitative comparison of zonal averages and annual cycles of the filled versus the original MOD43B3 data. The analyses emphasize the data’s inter- and intraannual variation and show that the filled data exhibit large- and small-scale phenological behavior that is qualitatively similar to that of the original MOD43B3. These analyses thereby serve to showcase the inherent spectral, spatial, and temporal variability in the MOD43B3 data as well as the ability of the fill technique to preserve these unique regional and pixel-level phenological characteristics.

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David J. Diner, Gregory P. Asner, Roger Davies, Yuri Knyazikhin, Jan-Peter Muller, Anne W. Nolin, Bernard Pinty, Crystal B. Schaaf, and Julienne Stroeve

The physical interpretation of simultaneous multiangle observations represents a relatively new approach to remote sensing of terrestrial geophysical and biophysical parameters. Multiangle measurements enable retrieval of physical scene characteristics, such as aerosol type, cloud morphology and height, and land cover (e.g., vegetation canopy type), providing improved albedo accuracies as well as compositional, morphological, and structural information that facilitates addressing many key climate, environmental, and ecological issues. While multiangle data from wide field-of-view scanners have traditionally been used to build up directional “signatures” of terrestrial scenes through multitemporal compositing, these approaches either treat the multiangle variation as a problem requiring correction or normalization or invoke statistical assumptions that may not apply to specific scenes. With the advent of a new generation of global imaging spectroradiometers capable of acquiring simultaneous visible/near-IR multiangle observations, namely, the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2, the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances instrument, and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer, both qualitatively new approaches as well as quantitative improvements in accuracy are achievable that exploit the multiangle signals as unique and rich sources of diagnostic information. This paper discusses several applications of this technique to scientific problems in terrestrial atmospheric and surface geophysics and biophysics.

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