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Mark A. Donelan, Fred W. Dobson, Hans C. Graber, Niels Madsen, and Cyril McCormick

Abstract

The design and implementation on a Small Waterline Area Twin Hull (SWATH) vessel of a complete system for measuring the directional distribution of wind waves and the concomitant fluctuations of air pressure and wind speed immediately above them are described. Data taken with the system on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Frederick G. Creed during the 1999 Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) are used to calculate the wave-supported fluxes of momentum and energy between the air and the sea.

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Mark A. Donelan, Alexander V. Babanin, Ian R. Young, Michael L. Banner, and Cyril McCormick

Abstract

An experimental study of wind energy and momentum input into finite-depth wind waves was undertaken at Lake George, New South Wales, Australia. To measure microscale oscillations of induced pressure above surface waves, a high-precision wave-follower system was developed at the University of Miami, Florida. The principal sensing hardware included Elliott pressure probes, hot-film anemometers, and Pitot tubes. The wave-follower recordings were supplemented by a complete set of relevant measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer, on the surface, and in the water body. This paper is dedicated to technical aspects of the measurement procedure and data analysis. The precision of the feedback wave-following mechanism did not impose any restrictions on the measurement accuracy in the range of wave heights and frequencies relevant to the problem. Thorough calibrations of the pressure transducers and moving Elliott probes were conducted. It is shown that the response of the air column in the connecting tubes provides a frequency-dependent phase shift, which must be accounted for to recover the low-level induced pressure signal. In the finite-depth environment of Lake George, breaking waves play an important role in the momentum exchange between wind and waves, as will be shown in a subsequent paper.

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William M. Drennan, Jun A. Zhang, Jeffrey R. French, Cyril McCormick, and Peter G. Black

Abstract

As part of the recent ONR-sponsored Coupled Boundary Layer Air–Sea Transfer (CBLAST) Departmental Research Initiative, an aircraft was instrumented to carry out direct turbulent flux measurements in the high wind boundary layer of a hurricane. During the 2003 field season flux measurements were made during Hurricanes Fabian and Isabel. Here the first direct measurements of latent heat fluxes measured in the hurricane boundary layer are reported. The previous wind speed range for humidity fluxes and Dalton numbers has been extended by over 50%. Up to 30 m s−1, the highest 10-m winds measured, the Dalton number is not significantly different from the Humidity Exchange over the Sea (HEXOS) result, with no evidence of an increase with wind speed.

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Ian R. Young, Michael L. Banner, Mark A. Donelan, Cyril McCormick, Alexander V. Babanin, W. Kendall Melville, and Fabrice Veron

Abstract

A field experiment to study the spectral balance of the source terms for wind-generated waves in finite water depth was carried out in Lake George, Australia. The measurements were made from a shore-connected platform at varying water depths from 1.2 m down to 20 cm. Wind conditions and the geometry of the lake were such that fetch-limited conditions with fetches ranging from approximately 10 km down to 1 km prevailed. The resulting waves were intermediate-depth wind waves with inverse wave ages in the range 1 < U 10/Cp < 8. The atmospheric input, bottom friction, and whitecap dissipation were measured directly and synchronously by an integrated measurement system, described in the paper. In addition, simultaneous data defining the directional wave spectrum, atmospheric boundary layer profile, and atmospheric turbulence were available. The contribution to the spectral evolution due to nonlinear interactions of various orders is investigated by a combination of bispectral analysis of the data and numerical modeling. The relatively small scale of the lake enabled experimental conditions such as the wind field and bathymetry to be well defined. The observations were conducted over a 3-yr period, from September 1997 to August 2000, with a designated intensive measurement period [the Australian Shallow Water Experiment (AUSWEX)] carried out in August–September 1999. High data return was achieved.

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