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L. C. Bender III
,
S. D. Howden
,
D. Dodd
, and
N. L. Guinasso Jr.

Abstract

In August 2005 the eye of Hurricane Katrina passed 49 n mi to the west of a 3-m discus buoy operated by the Central Gulf of Mexico Ocean Observing System (CenGOOS). Buoy motions were measured with a strapped-down 6 degrees of freedom accelerometer, a three-axis magnetometer, and a survey-grade GPS receiver. The significant wave heights were computed from the buoy’s accelerometer record and from the dual-frequency GPS measurements that were processed in two different ways. The first method was postprocessed kinematic (PPK) GPS, which requires another GPS receiver at a fixed known location, and the other was precise point positioning (PPP) GPS, which is another postprocessed positioning technique that yields absolute rather than differential positions. Unlike inertial measurement units, either GPS technique can be used to obtain both waves and water levels. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the excellent reliability and accuracy of both methods for determining wave heights and periods from a GPS record. When the motion of the GPS antenna is properly understood as the motion of the buoy deck and not the true vertical motion of the sea surface, the GPS wave heights are as reliable as a strapped-down 1D accelerometer.

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Jonathan M. Garner
,
William C. Iwasko
,
Tyler D. Jewel
,
Brad R. Charboneau
,
Alex A. Dodd
, and
Kathleen M. Zontos

Abstract

Weather fatalities for all age groups were examined for the period 1996–2018 using NOAA Storm Data. Vulnerabilities due to limited mobility that inhibited evacuation from a hazardous environment were observed for the very young and the very old. Those situations included heat- and cold-related hazards, tropical cyclones, and wildfires. Vulnerabilities associated with unrestricted mobility occurred in teenage through middle-aged groups, who were more exposed to fatal outcomes in the surfzone, mountain, winter-driving, and lightning environments. There is evidence that vulnerable members of society who received help from family, neighbors, and their community were more likely to avoid potentially fatal weather events, whereas those who were socially isolated were more likely to succumb. National Weather Service programs, such as Weather-Ready Nation, and other initiatives like the Community Emergency Response Team could potentially aid in reducing weather fatalities by encouraging communities to take a more proactive approach in ensuring physically vulnerable populations like the elderly receive assistance during hazardous weather events. Furthermore, weather-messaging strategies should be flexible enough to target populations who are vulnerable to specific hazards.

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P. Zion Klos
,
John T. Abatzoglou
,
Alycia Bean
,
Jarod Blades
,
Melissa A. Clark
,
Megan Dodd
,
Troy E. Hall
,
Amanda Haruch
,
Philip E. Higuera
,
Joseph D. Holbrook
,
Vincent S. Jansen
,
Kerry Kemp
,
Amber Lankford
,
Timothy E. Link
,
Troy Magney
,
Arjan J. H. Meddens
,
Liza Mitchell
,
Brandon Moore
,
Penelope Morgan
,
Beth A. Newingham
,
Ryan J. Niemeyer
,
Ben Soderquist
,
Alexis A. Suazo
,
Kerri T. Vierling
,
Von Walden
, and
Chelsea Walsh

Abstract

Climate change is well documented at the global scale, but local and regional changes are not as well understood. Finer, local- to regional-scale information is needed for creating specific, place-based planning and adaption efforts. Here the development of an indicator-focused climate change assessment in Idaho is described. This interdisciplinary framework couples end users’ data needs with observed, biophysical changes at local to regional scales. An online statewide survey of natural resource professionals was conducted to assess the perceived impacts from climate change and determine the biophysical data needed to measure those impacts. Changes to water resources and wildfire risk were the highest areas of concern among resource professionals. Guided by the survey results, 15 biophysical indicator datasets were summarized that included direct climate metrics (e.g., air temperature) and indicators only partially influenced by climate (e.g., wildfire). Quantitative changes in indicators were determined using time series analysis from 1975 to 2010. Indicators displayed trends of varying likelihood over the analysis period, including increasing growing-season length, increasing annual temperature, increasing forest area burned, changing mountain bluebird and lilac phenology, increasing precipitation intensity, earlier center of timing of streamflow, and decreased 1 April snowpack; changes in volumetric streamflow, salmon migration dates, and stream temperature displayed the least likelihood. A final conceptual framework derived from the social and biophysical data provides an interdisciplinary case example useful for consideration by others when choosing indicators at local to regional scales for climate change assessments.

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