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William W. Vaughan
and
Dale L. Johnson

The meteorological satellite program began in the United States as the result of the actions taken by a very small but dedicated group of people from the late 1940s to 1960. This paper provides firsthand accounts by two of these dedicated individuals. Their remarks provide an insight into the trials and tribulations they and the program encountered during these very early years. Those now active in the program, many of whom do not recall this time, might appreciate the effort of these pioneers and the legacy they left for us.

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William W. Vaughan
and
Dale L. Johnson

Aerospace meteorology plays an important role in the design, development, and operation of aerospace vehicles. Many of the issues and lessons presented occurred during the involvement of the authors with the development and interpretation of aerospace environment inputs, especially those of the terrestrial environment. Background for the actions needed to avoid the issue being repeated or the lesson having to be relearned is addressed. The engineering application importance and some issues associated with the presentation and interpretation of terrestrial environment guidelines associated with aerospace meteorology elements are presented.

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Gregory L. Johnson
,
Christopher Daly
,
George H. Taylor
, and
Clayton L. Hanson

Abstract

The spatial variability of 58 precipitation and temperature parameters from the “generation of weather elements for multiple applications” (GEM) weather generator has been investigated over a region of significant complexity in topography and climate. GEM parameters were derived for 80 climate stations in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon. A technique was developed and used to determine the GEM parameters from high-elevation snowpack telemetry stations that report precipitation in nonstandard 2.5-mm (versus 0.25 mm) increments. Important dependencies were noted between most of these parameters and elevation (both domainwide and local), location, and other factors. The “parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model” (PRISM) spatial modeling system was used to develop approximate 4-km gridded data fields of each of these parameters. A feature was developed in PRISM that models temperatures above and below mean inversions differently. Examples of the spatial fields derived from this study and a discussion of the applications of these spatial parameter fields are included.

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Mauro Di Luzio
,
Gregory L. Johnson
,
Christopher Daly
,
Jon K. Eischeid
, and
Jeffrey G. Arnold

Abstract

This paper presents and evaluates a method for the construction of long-range and wide-area temporal spatial datasets of daily precipitation and temperature (maximum and minimum). This method combines the interpolation of daily ratios/fractions derived from ground-based meteorological station records and respective fields of monthly estimates. Data sources for the described implementation over the conterminous United States (CONUS) are two independent and quality-controlled inputs: 1) an enhanced compilation of daily observations derived from the National Climatic Data Center digital archives and 2) the Parameter–Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) maps. The results of this study show that this nonconventional interpolation preserves the spatial and temporal distribution of both the PRISM maps (monthly, topography-sensitive patterns) and the original daily observations. Statistics of a preliminary point comparison with the observed values at high-quality and independent reference sites show a reasonable agreement and a noticeable improvement over the nearest station method in orographically sensitive areas. The implemented datasets provide daily precipitation and temperature values at 2.5-min (around 4 km) resolution for 1960–2001. Combining seamless spatial and temporal coverage and topographic sensitivity characteristics, the datasets offer the potential for supporting current and future regional and historical hydrologic assessments over the CONUS.

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