Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: Dale M. Barker x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Xuguang Wang, Dale M. Barker, Chris Snyder, and Thomas M. Hamill

Abstract

A hybrid ensemble transform Kalman filter–three-dimensional variational data assimilation (ETKF–3DVAR) system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is introduced. The system is based on the existing WRF 3DVAR. Unlike WRF 3DVAR, which utilizes a simple, static covariance model to estimate the forecast-error statistics, the hybrid system combines ensemble covariances with the static covariances to estimate the complex, flow-dependent forecast-error statistics. Ensemble covariances are incorporated by using the extended control variable method during the variational minimization. The ensemble perturbations are maintained by the computationally efficient ETKF. As an initial attempt to test and understand the newly developed system, both an observing system simulation experiment under the perfect model assumption (Part I) and the real observation experiment (Part II) were conducted. In these pilot studies, the WRF was run over the North America domain at a coarse grid spacing (200 km) to emphasize synoptic scales, owing to limited computational resources and the large number of experiments conducted. In Part I, simulated radiosonde wind and temperature observations were assimilated. The results demonstrated that the hybrid data assimilation method provided more accurate analyses than the 3DVAR. The horizontal distributions of the errors demonstrated the hybrid analyses had larger improvements over data-sparse regions than over data-dense regions. It was also found that the ETKF ensemble spread in general agreed with the root-mean-square background forecast error for both the first- and second-order measures. Given the coarse resolution, relatively sparse observation network, and perfect model assumption adopted in this part of the study, caution is warranted when extrapolating the results to operational applications.

Full access
Xuguang Wang, Dale M. Barker, Chris Snyder, and Thomas M. Hamill

Abstract

The hybrid ensemble transform Kalman filter–three-dimensional variational data assimilation (ETKF–3DVAR) system developed for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was further tested with real observations, as a follow-up for the observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) conducted in Part I. A domain encompassing North America was considered. Because of limited computational resources and the large number of experiments conducted, the forecasts and analyses employed relatively coarse grid spacing (200 km) to emphasize synoptic scales. As a first effort to explore the new system with real observations, relatively sparse observation datasets consisting of radiosonde wind and temperature during 4 weeks of January 2003 were assimilated. The 12-h forecasts produced by the hybrid analysis produced less root-mean-square error than the 3DVAR. The hybrid improved the forecast more in the western part of the domain than the eastern part. It also produced larger improvements in the upper troposphere. The overall magnitude of the ETKF ensemble spread agreed with the overall magnitude of the background forecast error. For individual variables and layers, the consistency between the spread and the error was less than the OSSE in Part I. Given the coarse resolution and relatively sparse observation network adopted in this study, caution is warranted when extrapolating these results to operational applications. A case study was also performed to further understand a large forecast improvement of the hybrid during the 4-week period. The flow-dependent adjustments produced by the hybrid extended a large distance into the eastern Pacific data-void region. The much improved analysis and forecast by the hybrid in the data void subsequently improved forecasts downstream in the region of verification. Although no moisture observations were assimilated, the hybrid updated the moisture fields flow dependently through cross-variable covariances defined by the ensemble, which improved the forecasts of cyclone development.

Full access
Qingnong Xiao, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Juanzhen Sun, Wen-Chau Lee, Dale M. Barker, and Eunha Lim

Abstract

A radar reflectivity data assimilation scheme was developed within the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system. The model total water mixing ratio was used as a control variable. A warm-rain process, its linear, and its adjoint were incorporated into the system to partition the moisture and hydrometeor increments. The observation operator for radar reflectivity was developed and incorporated into the 3DVAR. With a single reflectivity observation, the multivariate structures of the analysis increments that included cloud water and rainwater mixing ratio increments were examined. Using the onshore Doppler radar data from Jindo, South Korea, the capability of the radar reflectivity assimilation for the landfalling Typhoon Rusa (2002) was assessed. Verifications of inland quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) of Typhoon Rusa (2002) showed positive impacts of assimilating radar reflectivity data on the short-range QPF.

Full access
Soichiro Sugimoto, N. Andrew Crook, Juanzhen Sun, Qingnong Xiao, and Dale M. Barker

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3DVAR radar data assimilation in terms of the retrievals of convective fields and their impact on subsequent quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs). An assimilation methodology based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) and a cloud analysis scheme is described. Simulated data from 25 Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars are assimilated, and the potential benefits and limitations of the assimilation are quantitatively evaluated through observing system simulation experiments of a dryline that occurred over the southern Great Plains. Results indicate that the 3DVAR system is able to analyze certain mesoscale and convective-scale features through the incorporation of radar observations. The assimilation of all possible data (radial velocity and reflectivity factor data) results in the best performance on short-range precipitation forecasting. The wind retrieval by assimilating radial velocities is of primary importance in the 3DVAR framework and the storm case applied, and the use of multiple-Doppler observations improves the retrieval of the tangential wind component. The reflectivity factor assimilation is also beneficial especially for strong precipitation. It is demonstrated that the improved initial conditions through the 3DVAR analysis lead to improved skills on QPF.

Full access
Mi-Seon Lee, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Dale M. Barker, and Eunha Lim

Abstract

An incremental analysis updates (IAU) technique is implemented for 3-h updates of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) and model system with a 10-km resolution to remove spurious gravity waves. By gradually incorporating analysis increments, IAU affects only the removal of high frequencies, leaving the waves related to diurnal processes. IAU appears to be efficient in reducing the moisture spinup problem in the MM5 3DVAR cycling system. The advantage of the IAU is the most significant in improving precipitation forecasts. Rapid update cycle (RUC) with 1- and 2-h intervals in conjunction with the IAU indicates a rapid minimization and less spinup and -down problems because of greater balancing between the moisture and dynamic variables. Impact studies are performed on a heavy rainfall case that occurred in the Korean Peninsula. Verification results with a 3-h cycling system are presented on operational environments.

Full access
Craig H. Bishop, Daniel Hodyss, Peter Steinle, Holly Sims, Adam M. Clayton, Andrew C. Lorenc, Dale M. Barker, and Mark Buehner

Abstract

Previous descriptions of how localized ensemble covariances can be incorporated into variational (VAR) data assimilation (DA) schemes provide few clues as to how this might be done in an efficient way. This article serves to remedy this hiatus in the literature by deriving a computationally efficient algorithm for using nonadaptively localized four-dimensional (4D) or three-dimensional (3D) ensemble covariances in variational DA. The algorithm provides computational advantages whenever (i) the localization function is a separable product of a function of the horizontal coordinate and a function of the vertical coordinate, (ii) and/or the localization length scale is much larger than the model grid spacing, (iii) and/or there are many variable types associated with each grid point, (iv) and/or 4D ensemble covariances are employed.

Full access
S. Indira Rani, T. Arulalan, John P. George, E. N. Rajagopal, Richard Renshaw, Adam Maycock, Dale M. Barker, and M. Rajeevan

Abstract

A high-resolution regional reanalysis of the Indian Monsoon Data Assimilation and Analysis (IMDAA) project is made available to researchers for deeper understanding of the Indian monsoon and its variability. This 12-km resolution reanalysis covering the satellite era from 1979 to 2018 using a 4D-Var data assimilation method and the U.K. Met Office Unified Model is presently the highest resolution atmospheric reanalysis carried out for the Indian monsoon region. Conventional and satellite observations from different sources are used, including Indian surface and upper air observations, of which some had not been used in any previous reanalyses. Various aspects of this reanalysis, including quality control and bias correction of observations, data assimilation system, land surface analysis, and verification of reanalysis products, are presented in this paper. Representation of important weather phenomena of each season over India in the IMDAA reanalysis verifies reasonably well against India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations and compares closely with ERA5. Salient features of the Indian summer monsoon are found to be well represented in the IMDAA reanalysis. Characteristics of major semipermanent summer monsoon features (e.g., low-level jet and tropical easterly jet) in IMDAA reanalysis are consistent with ERA5. The IMDAA reanalysis has captured the mean, interannual, and intraseasonal variability of summer monsoon rainfall fairly well. IMDAA produces a slightly cooler winter and a hotter summer than the observations; the reverse is true for ERA5. IMDAA captured the fine-scale features associated with a notable heavy rainfall episode over complex terrain. In this study, the fine grid spacing nature of IMDAA is compromised due to the lack of comparable resolution observations for verification.

Open access
Qingnong Xiao, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Juanzhen Sun, Wen-Chau Lee, Eunha Lim, Yong-Run Guo, and Dale M. Barker

Abstract

In this paper, the impact of Doppler radar radial velocity on the prediction of a heavy rainfall event is examined. The three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system for use with the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) is further developed to enable the assimilation of radial velocity observations. Doppler velocities from the Korean Jindo radar are assimilated into MM5 using the 3DVAR system for a heavy rainfall case that occurred on 10 June 2002. The results show that the assimilation of Doppler velocities has a positive impact on the short-range prediction of heavy rainfall. The dynamic balance between atmospheric wind and thermodynamic fields, based on the Richardson equation, is introduced to the 3DVAR system. Vertical velocity (w) increments are included in the 3DVAR system to enable the assimilation of the vertical velocity component of the Doppler radial velocity observation. The forecast of the hydrometeor variables of cloud water (qc) and rainwater (qr) is used in the 3DVAR background fields. The observation operator for Doppler radial velocity is developed and implemented within the 3DVAR system. A series of experiments, assimilating the Korean Jindo radar data for the 10 June 2002 heavy rainfall case, indicates that the scheme for Doppler velocity assimilation is stable and robust in a cycling mode making use of high-frequency radar data. The 3DVAR with assimilation of Doppler radial velocities is shown to improve the prediction of the rainband movement and intensity change. As a result, an improved skill for the short-range heavy rainfall forecast is obtained. The forecasts of other quantities, for example, winds, are also improved. Continuous assimilation with 3-h update cycles is important in producing an improved heavy rainfall forecast. Assimilation of Doppler radar radial velocities using the 3DVAR background fields from a cycling procedure produces skillful rainfall forecasts when verified against observations.

Full access
Qingnong Xiao, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Zaizhong Ma, Wei Huang, Xiang-Yu Huang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Dale M. Barker, John Michalakes, and Jimy Dudhia

Abstract

The tangent linear and adjoint of an adiabatic version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with its Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamic core have been developed. The source-to-source automatic differentiation tool [i.e., the Transformation of Algorithm (TAF) in FORTRAN] was used in the development. Tangent linear and adjoint checks of the developed adiabatic WRF adjoint modeling system (WAMS) were conducted, and all necessary correctness verification procedures were passed. As the first application, the adiabatic WAMS was used to study the adjoint sensitivity of a severe windstorm in Antarctica. Linearity tests indicated that an adjoint-based sensitivity study with the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) 90-km domain configuration for the windstorm is valid up to 24 h. The adjoint-based sensitivity calculation with adiabatic WAMS identified sensitive regions for the improvement of the 24-h forecast of the windstorm. It is indicated that the windstorm forecast largely relies on the model initial conditions in the area from the south part of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains to West Antarctica and between the Ross Ice Shelf and the South Pole. Based on the sensitivity analysis, the southerly or southeasterly wind at lower levels in the sensitivity region should be larger, the cyclone should be stronger, and the atmospheric stratification should be more stable over the north slope of the Trans-Antarctic Mountain to the Ross Ice Shelf, than the AMPS analyses. By constructing pseudo-observations in the sensitivity region using the gradient information of forecast windstorm intensity around McMurdo, the model initial conditions are revised with the WRF three-dimensional variational data assimilation, which leads to significant improvement in the prediction of the windstorm. An adjoint sensitivity study is an efficient way to identify sensitivity regions in order to collect more observations in the region for better forecasts in a specific aspect of interest.

Full access
Juanzhen Sun, Ming Xue, James W. Wilson, Isztar Zawadzki, Sue P. Ballard, Jeanette Onvlee-Hooimeyer, Paul Joe, Dale M. Barker, Ping-Wah Li, Brian Golding, Mei Xu, and James Pinto

Traditionally, the nowcasting of precipitation was conducted to a large extent by means of extrapolation of observations, especially of radar ref lectivity. In recent years, the blending of traditional extrapolation-based techniques with high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) is gaining popularity in the nowcasting community. The increased need of NWP products in nowcasting applications poses great challenges to the NWP community because the nowcasting application of high-resolution NWP has higher requirements on the quality and content of the initial conditions compared to longer-range NWP. Considerable progress has been made in the use of NWP for nowcasting thanks to the increase in computational resources, advancement of high-resolution data assimilation techniques, and improvement of convective-permitting numerical modeling. This paper summarizes the recent progress and discusses some of the challenges for future advancement.

Full access