Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Daniel Vila x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Ramon Campos Braga and Daniel Alejandro Vila

Abstract

This study focuses on the possible relationship between ice water path (IWP) retrievals using high-frequency channels (89 and 150 GHz) from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B and Moisture Humidity Sounder sensors (NOAA-16NOAA-19) and the life cycle stage of convective clouds. In the first part of this study, the relationship between IWP and the cloud area expansion rate is analyzed using the 235-K isotherm from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-12 (GOES-12) thermal infrared images (10.7 μm). Next, the relationships between cloud convective fraction, rain rates (from ground radar), and cloud life cycle are analyzed. The selected area and time period coincide with the research activities of the Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modeling and to the Global Precipitation Measurement (CHUVA)–Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) project at São José dos Campos, Brazil. The results show that 84% of precipitating clouds contain ice, according to the Microwave Surface and Precipitation Products System (MSPPS) algorithm. Convective systems in the intensifying stage (when the area is expanding and the minimum temperature is decreasing) tend to have larger IWPs than systems in the dissipating stage. Larger rain rates and convective fractions are also observed from radar retrievals in the early stage of convection compared with mature systems. Hydrometeor retrieval data from polarimetric X-band radar suggest that particle effective diameter D e and IWP patterns inferred with the MSPPS algorithm could be used to determine the life cycle stage of a given convective system. Using this information, a new set of equations is evaluated for rainfall retrievals using D e and IWP from the current retrieval algorithm. This new approach outperforms the current algorithm in the studied region.

Full access
Daniel Vila, Ralph Ferraro, and Hilawe Semunegus

Abstract

Global monthly rainfall estimates have been produced from more than 20 years of measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program series of Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). This is the longest passive microwave dataset available to analyze the seasonal, annual, and interannual rainfall variability on a global scale. The primary algorithm used in this study is an 85-GHz scattering-based algorithm over land, while a combined 85-GHz scattering and 19/37-GHz emission is used over ocean. The land portion of this algorithm is one of the components of the blended Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall climatology. Because previous SSM/I processing was performed in real time, only a basic quality control (QC) procedure had been employed to avoid unrealistic values in the input data. A more sophisticated, statistical-based QC procedure on the daily data grids (antenna temperature) was developed to remove unrealistic values not detected in the original database and was employed to reprocess the rainfall product using the current version of the algorithm for the period 1992–2007. Discrepancies associated with the SSM/I-derived monthly rainfall products are characterized through comparisons with various gauge-based and other satellite-derived rainfall estimates. A substantial reduction in biases was observed as a result of this QC scheme. This will yield vastly improved global rainfall datasets.

Full access
Daniel Vila, Cecilia Hernandez, Ralph Ferraro, and Hilawe Semunegus

Abstract

Global monthly rainfall estimates and other hydrological products have been produced from 1987 to the present using measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The aim of this paper is twofold: to present the recent efforts to improve the quality control (QC) of historical antenna temperature of the SSM/I sensor (1987–2008) and how this improvement impacts the different hydrological products that are generated at NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). Beginning in 2005, the DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMI/S) has been successfully operating on the F-16, F-17, and F-18 satellites. The second objective of this paper is focused on the application of SSMI/S channels to evaluate the performance of several hydrological products using the heritage of existing SSM/I algorithms and to develop an improved strategy to extend the SSM/I time series into the SSMI/S era, starting with data in 2009 for F-17. The continuity of hydrological products from SSM/I to SSMI/S has shown to be a valuable contribution for the precipitation and climate monitoring community but several sensor issues must be accounted for to meet this objective.

Full access
Daniel Alejandro Vila, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Henri Laurent, and Inés Velasco

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an algorithm for tracking and forecasting radiative and morphological characteristics of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) through their entire life cycles using geostationary satellite thermal channel information (10.8 μm). The main features of this system are the following: 1) a cloud cluster detection method based on a threshold temperature (235 K), 2) a tracking technique based on MCS overlapping areas in successive images, and 3) a forecast module based on the evolution of each particular MCS in previous steps. This feature is based on the MCS’s possible displacement (considering the center of the mass position of the cloud cluster in previous time steps) and its size evolution. Statistical information about MCS evolution during the Wet Season Atmospheric Mesoscale Campaign (WETAMC) of the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) was used to obtain area expansion mean rates for different MCSs according to their lifetime durations. This nowcasting tool was applied to evaluate the MCS displacement and size evolution over the Del Plata basin in South America up to 120 min with 30-min intervals. The Forecast and Tracking the Evolution of Cloud Clusters (ForTraCC) technique’s performance was evaluated based on the difference between the forecasted and observed images. This evaluation shows good agreement between the observed and forecast size and minimum temperature for shorter forecast lead times, but tends to underestimate MCS size (and overestimate the minimum temperature) for larger forecast lead times.

Full access
José Roberto Rozante, Demerval Soares Moreira, Luis Gustavo G. de Goncalves, and Daniel A. Vila

Abstract

The measure of atmospheric model performance is highly dependent on the quality of the observations used in the evaluation process. In the particular case of operational forecast centers, large-scale datasets must be made available in a timely manner for continuous assessment of model results. Numerical models and surface observations usually work at distinct spatial scales (i.e., areal average in a regular grid versus point measurements), making direct comparison difficult. Alternatively, interpolation methods are employed for mapping observational data to regular grids and vice versa. A new technique (hereafter called MERGE) to combine Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite precipitation estimates with surface observations over the South American continent is proposed and its performance is evaluated for the 2007 summer and winter seasons. Two different approaches for the evaluation of the performance of this product against observations were tested: a cross-validation subsampling of the entire continent and another subsampling of only areas with sparse observations. Results show that over areas with a high density of observations, the MERGE technique’s performance is equivalent to that of simply averaging the stations within the grid boxes. However, over areas with sparse observations, MERGE shows superior results.

Full access
Daniel A. Vila, Luis Gustavo G. de Goncalves, David L. Toll, and Jose Roberto Rozante

Abstract

This paper describes a comprehensive assessment of a new high-resolution, gauge–satellite-based analysis of daily precipitation over continental South America during 2004. This methodology is based on a combination of additive and multiplicative bias correction schemes to get the lowest bias when compared with the observed values (rain gauges). Intercomparisons and cross-validation tests have been carried out between independent rain gauges and different merging techniques. This validation process was done for the control algorithm [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis real-time algorithm] and five different merging schemes: additive bias correction; ratio bias correction; TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis, research version; and the combined scheme proposed in this paper. These methodologies were tested for different months belonging to different seasons and for different network densities. All compared, merging schemes produce better results than the control algorithm; however, when finer temporal (daily) and spatial scale (regional networks) gauge datasets are included in the analysis, the improvement is remarkable. The combined scheme consistently presents the best performance among the five techniques tested in this paper. This is also true when a degraded daily gauge network is used instead of a full dataset. This technique appears to be a suitable tool to produce real-time, high-resolution, gauge- and satellite-based analyses of daily precipitation over land in regional domains.

Full access
Luis Gustavo G. de Goncalves, William J. Shuttleworth, Daniel Vila, Eliane Larroza, Marcus J. Bottino, Dirceu L. Herdies, Jose A. Aravequia, Joao G. Z. De Mattos, David L. Toll, Matthew Rodell, and Paul Houser

Abstract

The definition and derivation of a 5-yr, 0.125°, 3-hourly atmospheric forcing dataset that is appropriate for use in a Land Data Assimilation System operating across South America is described. Because surface observations are limited in this region, many of the variables were taken from the South American Regional Reanalysis; however, remotely sensed data were merged with surface observations to calculate the precipitation and downward shortwave radiation fields. The quality of this dataset was evaluated against the surface observations available. There are regional differences in the biases for all variables in the dataset, with volumetric biases in precipitation of the order 0–1 mm day−1 and RMSE of 5–15 mm day−1, biases in surface solar radiation of the order 10 W m−2 and RMSE of 20 W m−2, positive biases in temperature typically between 0 and 4 K depending on the region, and positive biases in specific humidity around 2–3 g kg−1 in tropical regions and negative biases around 1–2 g kg−1 farther south.

Full access
Simone M. S. Costa, Renato G. Negri, Nelson J. Ferreira, Timothy J. Schmit, Nelson Arai, Wagner Flauber, Juan Ceballos, Daniel Vila, Jurandir Rodrigues, Luiz A. Machado, Sérgio Pereira, Marcus Jorge Bottino, Raffi Agop Sismanoglu, and Pedro Langden

Abstract

This paper summarizes the successful use of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-10 (GOES-10) and -12 (GOES-12), mainly beyond their retirement as operational satellites in the United States, in support of meteorological activities in South America (SA). These satellites were maneuvered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to approximately 60°W, enabling other countries in Central and South America to benefit from their ongoing measurements. The extended usefulness of GOES-10 and -12 was only possible as a result of a new image geolocalization system developed by NOAA for correcting image distortions and evaluated in collaboration with the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. The extension allowed GOES-10 and -12 to monitor SA for an additional 7 years proving the efficiency of this navigation capability implemented for the first time in the GOES series well beyond the expected satellites’ lifetime. Such successful capability is incorporated in the new-generation GOES-R series. This practical and technological experience shows the importance of communication between scientists from the United States and SA for advancing Earth’s monitoring system through the development of novel software and derived products. For SA in particular, GOES-10 and -12 were employed operationally to monitor dry spells, relevant for agriculture and forest fire management and to nowcast severe weather for flash flood warnings. Additionally, GOES-12 detected the first registered tropical hurricane over the Brazilian coast. This paper describes some of the technical and operational challenges faced in extending the GOES-10 and -12 missions to provide coverage over South America and emphasizes the usefulness of their ongoing measurements benefiting Brazilian environmental monitoring.

Open access
Luiz A. T. Machado, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Carlos Morales, Gilberto Fisch, Daniel Vila, Rachel Albrecht, Steven J. Goodman, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Christian Kummerow, Julia Cohen, David Fitzjarrald, Ernani L. Nascimento, Meiry S. Sakamoto, Christopher Cunningham, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Walter A. Petersen, David K. Adams, Luca Baldini, Carlos F. Angelis, Luiz F. Sapucci, Paola Salio, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Eduardo Landulfo, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeffrey Bailey, Saulo Freitas, Wagner F. A. Lima, and Ali Tokay

CHUVA, meaning “rain” in Portuguese, is the acronym for the Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud-Resolving Modeling and to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). The CHUVA project has conducted five field campaigns; the sixth and last campaign will be held in Manaus in 2014. The primary scientific objective of CHUVA is to contribute to the understanding of cloud processes, which represent one of the least understood components of the weather and climate system. The five CHUVA campaigns were designed to investigate specific tropical weather regimes. The first two experiments, in Alcantara and Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, focused on warm clouds. The third campaign, which was conducted in Belém, was dedicated to tropical squall lines that often form along the sea-breeze front. The fourth campaign was in the Vale do Paraiba of southeastern Brazil, which is a region with intense lightning activity. In addition to contributing to the understanding of cloud process evolution from storms to thunderstorms, this fourth campaign also provided a high-fidelity total lightning proxy dataset for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R program. The fifth campaign was carried out in Santa Maria, in southern Brazil, a region of intense hailstorms associated with frequent mesoscale convective complexes. This campaign employed a multimodel high-resolution ensemble experiment. The data collected from contrasting precipitation regimes in tropical continental regions allow the various cloud processes in diverse environments to be compared. Some examples of these previous experiments are presented to illustrate the variability of convection across the tropics.

Full access
Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Luiz A. T. Machado, Rachel Albrecht, Hans Schlager, Daniel Rosenfeld, Scot T. Martin, Ahmed Abdelmonem, Armin Afchine, Alessandro C. Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Heinfried Aufmhoff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Bernhard Buchholz, Micael Amore Cecchini, Anja Costa, Joachim Curtius, Maximilian Dollner, Marcel Dorf, Volker Dreiling, Volker Ebert, André Ehrlich, Florian Ewald, Gilberto Fisch, Andreas Fix, Fabian Frank, Daniel Fütterer, Christopher Heckl, Fabian Heidelberg, Tilman Hüneke, Evelyn Jäkel, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Sandra Kanter, Udo Kästner, Mareike Kenntner, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Matthias Knecht, Rebecca Kohl, Tobias Kölling, Martina Krämer, Mira Krüger, Trismono Candra Krisna, Jost V. Lavric, Karla Longo, Christoph Mahnke, Antonio O. Manzi, Bernhard Mayer, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Steffen Münch, Björn Nillius, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Christopher Pöhlker, Anke Roiger, Diana Rose, Dagmar Rosenow, Daniel Sauer, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Rodrigo A. F. de Souza, Antonio Spanu, Paul Stock, Daniel Vila, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, David Walter, Ralf Weigel, Bernadett Weinzierl, Frank Werner, Marcia A. Yamasoe, Helmut Ziereis, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger

Abstract

Between 1 September and 4 October 2014, a combined airborne and ground-based measurement campaign was conducted to study tropical deep convective clouds over the Brazilian Amazon rain forest. The new German research aircraft, High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO), a modified Gulfstream G550, and extensive ground-based instrumentation were deployed in and near Manaus (State of Amazonas). The campaign was part of the German–Brazilian Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems–Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) (ACRIDICON– CHUVA) venture to quantify aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic, and radiative effects by in situ and remote sensing measurements over Amazonia. The ACRIDICON–CHUVA field observations were carried out in cooperation with the second intensive operating period of Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon2014/5). In this paper we focus on the airborne data measured on HALO, which was equipped with about 30 in situ and remote sensing instruments for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and spectral solar radiation measurements. Fourteen research flights with a total duration of 96 flight hours were performed. Five scientific topics were pursued: 1) cloud vertical evolution and life cycle (cloud profiling), 2) cloud processing of aerosol particles and trace gases (inflow and outflow), 3) satellite and radar validation (cloud products), 4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and 5) cloud formation over forested/deforested areas. Data were collected in near-pristine atmospheric conditions and in environments polluted by biomass burning and urban emissions. The paper presents a general introduction of the ACRIDICON– CHUVA campaign (motivation and addressed research topics) and of HALO with its extensive instrument package, as well as a presentation of a few selected measurement results acquired during the flights for some selected scientific topics.

Full access