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Stig Syndergaard
,
E. Robert Kursinski
,
Benjamin M. Herman
,
Emily M. Lane
, and
David E. Flittner

Abstract

This paper describes the details of a fast, linear, forward-inverse refractive index mapping operator that can be used for assimilation of occultation data of various kinds into NWP models. Basically, the mapping consists of the integration of the refractive index along finite straight lines, mimicking the observational geometry as well as the subsequent retrieval of a refractive index profile, assuming spherical symmetry. Line integrals are discretized such that the refractivity is evaluated along the horizontal at fixed levels that can be chosen to coincide with the pressure levels of an NWP model. Integration of the hydrostatic equation at a large number of locations is thereby avoided. The mapping operator is tested using an idealized model of a weather front with large horizontal gradients. Mapped refractivity profiles are compared with retrieved refractivity profiles obtained via accurate 3D ray tracing simulations of GPS radio occultation events with ray path tangent points near the weather front. The simulations indicate that the mapping is a good representation of occultation measurements, including the influence large horizontal gradients have on retrieved refractivity profiles. To further the results, a simple ad hoc modification is introduced to approximately account for the ray path bending near the tangent points. The forward-inverse mapping allows for the near cancellation of otherwise crude approximations—for example, straight-line propagation—and the general concept could perhaps be adapted for the development of fast and accurate observation operators for the assimilation of other types of remote sensing data.

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Yongxiang Hu
,
David Winker
,
Mark Vaughan
,
Bing Lin
,
Ali Omar
,
Charles Trepte
,
David Flittner
,
Ping Yang
,
Shaima L. Nasiri
,
Bryan Baum
,
Robert Holz
,
Wenbo Sun
,
Zhaoyan Liu
,
Zhien Wang
,
Stuart Young
,
Knut Stamnes
,
Jianping Huang
, and
Ralph Kuehn

Abstract

The current cloud thermodynamic phase discrimination by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) is based on the depolarization of backscattered light measured by its lidar [Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)]. It assumes that backscattered light from ice crystals is depolarizing, whereas water clouds, being spherical, result in minimal depolarization. However, because of the relationship between the CALIOP field of view (FOV) and the large distance between the satellite and clouds and because of the frequent presence of oriented ice crystals, there is often a weak correlation between measured depolarization and phase, which thereby creates significant uncertainties in the current CALIOP phase retrieval. For water clouds, the CALIOP-measured depolarization can be large because of multiple scattering, whereas horizontally oriented ice particles depolarize only weakly and behave similarly to water clouds. Because of the nonunique depolarization–cloud phase relationship, more constraints are necessary to uniquely determine cloud phase. Based on theoretical and modeling studies, an improved cloud phase determination algorithm has been developed. Instead of depending primarily on layer-integrated depolarization ratios, this algorithm differentiates cloud phases by using the spatial correlation of layer-integrated attenuated backscatter and layer-integrated particulate depolarization ratio. This approach includes a two-step process: 1) use of a simple two-dimensional threshold method to provide a preliminary identification of ice clouds containing randomly oriented particles, ice clouds with horizontally oriented particles, and possible water clouds and 2) application of a spatial coherence analysis technique to separate water clouds from ice clouds containing horizontally oriented ice particles. Other information, such as temperature, color ratio, and vertical variation of depolarization ratio, is also considered. The algorithm works well for both the 0.3° and 3° off-nadir lidar pointing geometry. When the lidar is pointed at 0.3° off nadir, half of the opaque ice clouds and about one-third of all ice clouds have a significant lidar backscatter contribution from specular reflections from horizontally oriented particles. At 3° off nadir, the lidar backscatter signals for roughly 30% of opaque ice clouds and 20% of all observed ice clouds are contaminated by horizontally oriented crystals.

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