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Kim I. Martini, David J. Murphy, Raymond W. Schmitt, and Nordeen G. Larson
Open access
Kim I. Martini, David J. Murphy, Raymond W. Schmitt, and Nordeen G. Larson

Abstract

Sea-Bird Scientific SBE 41CP CTDs are used on autonomous floats in the global Argo ocean observing program to measure the temperature and salinity of the upper ocean. While profiling, the sensors are subject to dynamic errors as they profile through vertical gradients. Applying dynamic corrections to the temperature and conductivity data reduces these errors and improves sensor accuracy. A series of laboratory experiments conducted in a stratified tank are used to characterize dynamic errors and determine corrections. The corrections are adapted for Argo floats, and recommendations for future implementation are presented.

Open access
Patrick W. S. King, Michael J. Leduc, David M. L. Sills, Norman R. Donaldson, David R. Hudak, Paul Joe, and Brian P. Murphy

Abstract

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery is used to demonstrate the development of lake-breeze boundaries in southern Ontario under different synoptic conditions. The orientation of the gradient wind with respect to the shorelines is important in determining the location of such lines. When moderate winds (5–10 m s−1) are parallel to straight sections of coastlines, cloud lines can extend well inland. In the region between Lakes Huron and Erie lake-breeze lines merge frequently, sometimes resulting in long-lasting stationary storms and attendant heavy rain and flooding. The influence of the lakes is apparent in the tornado climatology for the region: tornadoes appear to be suppressed in regions visited by lake-modified air and enhanced in regions favored by lake-breeze convergence lines. The cloud patterns in the case of a cold front interacting with merging lake-breeze boundaries are shown to be similar to those on a major tornado outbreak day. Two of the cases discussed are used as conceptual models to explain many of the features in the patterns of tornado touchdown locations. In general, it appears that the lakes suppress tornadoes in southern Ontario, compared with neighboring states and in particular in areas where southwest winds are onshore, but enhance tornado likelihood locally in areas of frequent lake-breeze activity.

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Rajul E. Pandya, David R. Smith, Donna J. Charlevoix, Wayne Hart, Marianne J. Hayes, Shirley T. Murillo, Kathleen A. Murphy, Diane M. Stanitski, and Thomas M. Whittaker
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Rajul E. Pandya, David R. Smith, Donna J. Charlevoix, Genene M. Fisher, Shirley T. Murillo, Kathleen A. Murphy, Diane M. Stanitski, and Thomas M. Whittaker
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Jamie D. Shutler, Peter E. Land, Jean-Francois Piolle, David K. Woolf, Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy, Frederic Paul, Fanny Girard-Ardhuin, Bertrand Chapron, and Craig J. Donlon

Abstract

The air–sea flux of greenhouse gases [e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2)] is a critical part of the climate system and a major factor in the biogeochemical development of the oceans. More accurate and higher-resolution calculations of these gas fluxes are required if researchers are to fully understand and predict future climate. Satellite Earth observation is able to provide large spatial-scale datasets that can be used to study gas fluxes. However, the large storage requirements needed to host such data can restrict its use by the scientific community. Fortunately, the development of cloud computing can provide a solution. This paper describes an open-source air–sea CO2 flux processing toolbox called the “FluxEngine,” designed for use on a cloud-computing infrastructure. The toolbox allows users to easily generate global and regional air–sea CO2 flux data from model, in situ, and Earth observation data, and its air–sea gas flux calculation is user configurable. Its current installation on the Nephalae Cloud allows users to easily exploit more than 8 TB of climate-quality Earth observation data for the derivation of gas fluxes. The resultant netCDF data output files contain >20 data layers containing the various stages of the flux calculation along with process indicator layers to aid interpretation of the data. This paper describes the toolbox design, which verifies the air–sea CO2 flux calculations; demonstrates the use of the tools for studying global and shelf sea air–sea fluxes; and describes future developments.

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Doug M. Smith, Nick J. Dunstone, Rosie Eade, David Fereday, Leon Hermanson, James M. Murphy, Holger Pohlmann, Niall Robinson, and Adam A. Scaife
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Rajul Pandya, David Smith, Steven A. Ackerman, Priti P. Brahma, Donna J. Charlevoix, Susan Q. Foster, Volker Karl Gaertner, Thomas F. Lee, Marianne J. Hayes, Anthony Mostek, Shirley T. Murillo, Kathleen A. Murphy, Lola Olsen, Diane M. Stanitski, and Thomas Whittaker

Abstract

No Abstract available.

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Rajul E. Pandya, David R. Smith, Donna J. Charlevoix, Susan Q. Foster, Robert Hart, Marianne J. Hayes, Marjorie McGuirk, Shirley T. Murillo, Kathleen A. Murphy, Diane M. Stanitski, and Thomas M. Whittaker
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Melanie Wetzel, David Dempsey, Sandra Nilsson, Mohan Ramamurthy, Steve Koch, Jennie Moody, David Knight, Charles Murphy, David Fulker, Mary Marlino, Michael Morgan, Doug Yarger, Dan Vietor, and Greg Cox

An education-oriented workshop for college faculty in the atmospheric and related sciences was held in Boulder, Colorado, during June 1997 by three programs of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The objective of this workshop was to provide faculty with hands-on training in the use of Web-based instructional methods for specific application to the teaching of satellite remote sensing in their subject areas. More than 150 faculty and associated scientists participated, and postworkshop evaluation showed it to have been a very successful integration of information and activities related to computer-based instruction, educational principles, and scientific lectures.

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