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Daphne S. LaDue
,
David Roueche
,
Frank Lombardo
, and
Lara Mayeux

Abstract

When a tornado strikes a permanent or mobile/manufactured home, occupants are at risk of injury and death from blunt force trauma caused by debris-loaded winds and failure of the structure. Mechanisms for these failures have been studied for the past few decades and identified common weaknesses in the structural load path. Also under study in recent decades, much has been learned about how people receive and understand warnings and determine how, when, and if they will shelter in advance. Recent research, for example, shows most people do not shelter until close to impact, after seeing, hearing, or feeling the approaching tornado. To advance beyond these innovations, a new, multi-disciplinary approach was fielded in nine Southeast U.S. tornadoes between 2019 and 2022. For each tornado, 1) wind engineering assessments documented near-surface wind fields, 2) structural engineering assessments documented the primary wind load path for each structure, and 3) social science interviews captured the survivor’s narrative and asked several follow-up questions to assure key items of interest were addressed in each interview. When possible, the team was multi-disciplinary during the interview, enabling survivors to ask questions and better understand their experiences. Most survivors became aware of the approaching tornado with at least a few minutes lead time and most were able to reach a place of refuge. Most survivors recalled sensory experiences during the tornado and about half could describe direction or temporal sequences of damage. A case study of the Cookeville, Tennessee, Tornado of 3 March 2020 illustrates the power of the integrated data assessment.

Open access
Kevin D. Ash
,
Michael J. Egnoto
,
Stephen M. Strader
,
Walker S. Ashley
,
David B. Roueche
,
Kim E. Klockow-McClain
,
David Caplen
, and
Maurya Dickerson

Abstract

Southeastern U.S. mobile and manufactured housing (MH) residents are the most tornado-vulnerable subset of the population because of both physical and socioeconomic factors. This study builds upon prior MH resident tornado vulnerability research by statistically and geographically analyzing responses from a survey administered to these residents in the Southeast. Specifically, 257 Alabama and Mississippi MH residents were administered a survey with questions pertaining to their perceived tornado risk and vulnerability, protective action and decision-making, and beliefs about the structural integrity of their homes. Results indicate that, despite the weather and emergency management enterprises consistently suggesting that MH residents evacuate their homes for sturdier shelter during tornado events, more than 50% of MH residents believe their homes are safe sheltering locations. The prevalence of larger MHs in northern Alabama partially influences willingness to shelter within one’s MH, while higher levels of negative affectivity stemming from recent impactful tornadoes in northern Alabama influences people to evacuate their MHs for safety. Study findings also uncovered a perception and vulnerability paradox for these residents: Those who have the means to evacuate their MH often feel they have no need to do so, whereas those who recognize the potential peril of sheltering in their home and want to evacuate often lack the resources and/or self-efficacy to carry out more desirable sheltering plans. Overall, study results provide valuable information for National Weather Service forecasters, emergency managers, and media partners so that they may use it for public outreach and MH resident education.

Open access