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Raymond W. Arritt
,
Thomas D. Rink
,
Moti Segal
,
Dennis P. Todey
,
Craig A. Clark
,
Mark J. Mitchell
, and
Kenneth M. Labas

Abstract

Hourly wind profiler observations from the NOAA Profiler Network were used to develop a climatology of the low-level jet (LLJ) over the Great Plains of the central United States from April to September of 1993. The peak precipitation episode of the 1993 flood was associated with a sustained period of high incidence of strong low-level jets (over 20 m s−1). Consistent with previous studies, strong low-level jets were found to be promoted in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone. Comparison of datasets formulated using velocity variance thresholds with unthresholded data similar to the operational hourly data suggests that the profiler observations often were contaminated by radar returns from migrating birds, especially during the months of April and May.

The strong low-level jets during the peak precipitation episode of the 1993 flood over the upper Mississippi River basin were associated with a high-amplitude upper-level wave pattern over and upstream of the continental United States. Separating the composite 850-mb wind for strong low-level jets into geostrophic and ageostrophic components showed that the magnitudes of the ageostrophic component and the anomalous geostrophic component were comparable.

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Karsten A. Shein
,
Dennis P. Todey
,
F. Adnan Akyuz
,
James R. Angel
,
Timothy M. Kearns
, and
James L. Zdrojewski

Abstract

The NOAA National Climatic Data Center maintains tables for temperature and precipitation extremes in each of the U.S. states. Many of these tables were several years out of date, however, and therefore did not include a number of recent record-setting meteorological observations. Furthermore, there was no formal process for ensuring the currency of the tables or evaluating observations that might tie or break a statewide climate record. This paper describes the evaluation and revision of the statewide climate-extremes tables for all-time maximum and minimum temperature, greatest 24-h precipitation and snowfall, and greatest snow depth (the five basic climate elements observed on a daily basis by the NOAA Cooperative Weather Network). The process resulted in the revision of 40% of the values listed in those tables and underscored both the necessity of manual quality-assurance methods and the importance of continued climate-monitoring and data-rescue activities to ensure that potential record values are not overlooked.

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Karsten A. Shein
,
Dennis P. Todey
,
F. Adnan Akyuz
,
James R. Angel
,
Timothy M. Kearns
, and
James L. Zdrojewski

New all-time extreme climate records have been set in several states over the past few years. These records highlighted a need to review the existing statewide climate extremes tables maintained by the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Also, since these tables were last up-dated, NCDC has greatly extended its digital data record into the past for many locations and has applied improved quality assurance processes to its archived data, revealing several potential new record values. To ensure the records maintained in the statewide climate extremes tables accurately reflect the most current and valid data available, the records were reevaluated. The all-time maximum and minimum temperature, all-time greatest 24-h precipitation and snowfall, and all-time greatest snow depth for each of the 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands were manually examined to determine their validity, accuracy, accessibility, and provenance. NCDC's data holdings were scoured for values that might exceed established records, and the validity of each potentially record-breaking observation was evaluated. The revised extremes tables were vetted by the National Weather Service, regional climate centers, and state climatologists to ensure agreement. In conjunction with this revision, a new state climate extremes evaluation process has been established to formally consider any potential challenges to the existing records and update the records tables as necessary.

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Tim Li
,
Abdallah Abida
,
Laura S. Aldeco
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Lincoln M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
B. Andrade
,
Julian Baez
,
M. Yu. Bardin
,
Endalkachew Bekele
,
Eric Broedel
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Jayaka D. Campbell
,
Diego A. Campos Diaz
,
Gilma Carvajal
,
Elise Chandler
,
Vincent. Y. S. Cheng
,
Chulwoon Choi
,
Leonardo A. Clarke
,
Kris Correa
,
Felipe Costa
,
A. P. Cunha
,
Mesut Demircan
,
R. Dhurmea
,
Eliecer A. Díaz
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Bantwale D. Enyew
,
Jhan C. Espinoza
,
Amin Fazl-Kazem
,
Nava Fedaeff
,
Z. Feng
,
Chris Fenimore
,
S. D. Francis
,
Karin Gleason
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
Indra Gustari
,
S. Hagos
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
Rafael Hernández
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
J. A. Ijampy
,
Annie C. Joseph
,
Guillaume Jumaux
,
Khadija Kabidi
,
Johannes W. Kaiser
,
Pierre-Honore Kamsu-Tamo
,
John Kennedy
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Khatuna Kokosadze
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
Andries C. Kruger
,
Nato Kutaladze
,
L. Labbé
,
Mónika Lakatos
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Mark A. Lander
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
T. C. Lee
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Andrew D. Magee
,
Jostein Mamen
,
José A. Marengo
,
Dora Marín
,
Charlotte McBride
,
Lia Megrelidze
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Y. Mochizuki
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Natali Mora
,
Awatif E. Mostafa
,
uan José Nieto
,
Lamjav Oyunjargal
,
Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
,
Maria Asuncion Pastor Saavedra
,
Uwe Pfeifroth
,
David Phillips
,
Madhavan Rajeevan
,
Andrea M. Ramos
,
Jayashree V. Revadekar
,
Miliaritiana Robjhon
,
Ernesto Rodriguez Camino
,
Esteban Rodriguez Guisado
,
Josyane Ronchail
,
Benjamin Rösner
,
Roberto Salinas
,
Amal Sayouri
,
Carl J. Schreck III
,
Serhat Sensoy
,
A. Shimpo
,
Fatou Sima
,
Adam Smith
,
Jacqueline Spence
,
Sandra Spillane
,
Arne Spitzer
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
José L. Stella
,
Kimberly A. Stephenson
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Wassila Thiaw
,
Skie Tobin
,
Dennis Todey
,
Katja Trachte
,
Adrian R. Trotman
,
Gerard van der Schrier
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
Ahad Vazifeh
,
José Vicencio Veloso
,
Wei Wang
,
Fei Xin
,
Peiqun Zhang
,
Zhiwei Zhu
, and
Jonas Zucule
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