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Dirk Klugmann
and
Carolin Richter

Abstract

The shape of larger raindrops shows a deviation from spheres. This leads to a radar backscatter cross section different from the Rayleigh cross section. The drop shape-induced error for deducing rain rates is calculated. The resulting correction factor is applied to radar data measured during the CLEOPATRA field campaign in 1992. Depending on the drop size distribution, the correction led to reductions of the rain rate up to 10%. Furthermore. it is shown that the drop shape-induced error can be used as an indicator for drop size distribution.

Full access
Mary C. Barth
,
Christopher A. Cantrell
,
William H. Brune
,
Steven A. Rutledge
,
James H. Crawford
,
Heidi Huntrieser
,
Lawrence D. Carey
,
Donald MacGorman
,
Morris Weisman
,
Kenneth E. Pickering
,
Eric Bruning
,
Bruce Anderson
,
Eric Apel
,
Michael Biggerstaff
,
Teresa Campos
,
Pedro Campuzano-Jost
,
Ronald Cohen
,
John Crounse
,
Douglas A. Day
,
Glenn Diskin
,
Frank Flocke
,
Alan Fried
,
Charity Garland
,
Brian Heikes
,
Shawn Honomichl
,
Rebecca Hornbrook
,
L. Gregory Huey
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Timothy Lang
,
Michael Lichtenstern
,
Tomas Mikoviny
,
Benjamin Nault
,
Daniel O’Sullivan
,
Laura L. Pan
,
Jeff Peischl
,
Ilana Pollack
,
Dirk Richter
,
Daniel Riemer
,
Thomas Ryerson
,
Hans Schlager
,
Jason St. Clair
,
James Walega
,
Petter Weibring
,
Andrew Weinheimer
,
Paul Wennberg
,
Armin Wisthaler
,
Paul J. Wooldridge
, and
Conrad Ziegler

Abstract

The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment produced an exceptional dataset on thunderstorms, including their dynamical, physical, and electrical structures and their impact on the chemical composition of the troposphere. The field experiment gathered detailed information on the chemical composition of the inflow and outflow regions of midlatitude thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, west Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the upper-tropospheric convective plume. These data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, chemistry in the upper troposphere that is affected by the convection, and related source characterization of the three sampling regions. DC3 also documented biomass-burning plumes and the interactions of these plumes with deep convection.

Full access
J. K. Andersen
,
Liss M. Andreassen
,
Emily H. Baker
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Logan T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Jarle W. Bjerke
,
Jason E. Box
,
L. Britt
,
R. Brown
,
David Burgess
,
John Cappelen
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
B. Decharme
,
C. Derksen
,
D. S. Drozdov
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
L. M. Farquharson
,
Sinead L. Farrell
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
K. Isaksen
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
L. Kaleschke
,
A. L. Kholodov
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Jack Kohler
,
Zachary Labe
,
Carol Ladd
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Bryant Loomis
,
Bartłomiej Luks
,
K. Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
G. V. Malkova
,
Kenneth D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
J. M. Marsh
,
Walt Meier
,
Twila A. Moon
,
Thomas Mote
,
L. Mudryk
,
F. J. Mueter
,
Rolf Müller
,
K. E. Nyland
,
Shad O’Neel
,
James E. Overland
,
Don Perovich
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Martha K. Raynolds
,
C. H. Reijmer
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
E. A. G. Schuur
,
Martin Sharp
,
Nikolai I. Shiklomanov
,
C. J. P. P. Smeets
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Marco Tedesco
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
J. T. Thorson
,
X. Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mark Tschudi
,
Dirk van As
,
R. S. W. van de Wal
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Øyvind Winton
,
Gabriel J. Wolken
,
K. Wood
,
Bert Wouters
, and
S. Zador
Free access
Matthew L. Druckenmiller
,
Twila A. Moon
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Logan T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Jarle W. Bjerke
,
Jason E. Box
,
R. Brown
,
John Cappelen
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
B. Decharme
,
C. Derksen
,
Dmitry Divine
,
D. S. Drozdov
,
A. Elias Chereque
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
L. M. Farquharson
,
Sinead L. Farrell
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Emily Gargulinski
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Z. Grabinski
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Christian Haas
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Robert M. Holmes
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
K. Isaksen
,
Piyush Jain
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
L. Kaleschke
,
A. L. Kholodov
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Niels J. Korsgaard
,
Zachary Labe
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Bryant Loomis
,
K. Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
G. V. Malkova
,
Kenneth D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
James W. McClelland
,
Walter N. Meier
,
Thomas Mote
,
L. Mudryk
,
Rolf Müller
,
K. E. Nyland
,
James E. Overland
,
T. Park
,
Olga Pavlova
,
Don Perovich
,
Alek Petty
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Martha K. Raynolds
,
C. H. Reijmer
,
Jacqueline Richter-Menge
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
Lindsay Scott
,
Hazel Shapiro
,
Alexander I. Shiklomanov
,
Nikolai I. Shiklomanov
,
C. J. P. P. Smeets
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Amber Soja
,
Robert G. M. Spencer
,
Sandy Starkweather
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Anya Suslova
,
Tove Svendby
,
Suzanne E. Tank
,
Marco Tedesco
,
X. Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mikhail Tretiakov
,
Mark Tschudi
,
Sofia Vakhutinsky
,
Dirk van As
,
R. S. W. van de Wal
,
Sander Veraverbeke
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Øyvind Winton
,
K. Wood
,
Alison York
, and
Robert Ziel
Free access