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Dong Si and Aixue Hu

Abstract

Interdecadal oceanic variabilities can be generated from both internal and external processes, and these variabilities can significantly modulate climate on global and regional scales, including the warming slowdown in the early twenty-first century and rainfall in East Asia. By analyzing simulations from a unique Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project, it is shown that the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO) is primarily an internally generated oceanic variability, while the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) may be an oceanic variability generated by internal oceanic processes and modulated by external forcing in the twentieth century. Although the observed relationship between IPO and the Yangtze–Huaihe River valley (YHRV) summer rainfall in China is well simulated in both the preindustrial control and the twentieth-century ensemble simulation, none of the twentieth-century ensemble members can reproduce the observed time evolution of both the IPO and YHRV rainfall because of the unpredictable nature of IPO on multidecadal time scales. On the other hand, although CESM-LE cannot reproduce the observed relationship between the AMO and Huanghe River valley (HRV) summer rainfall of China in the preindustrial control simulation, this relationship in the twentieth-century simulations is well reproduced, and the chance of reproducing the observed time evolution of both AMO and HRV rainfall is about 30%, indicating the important role of the interaction between the internal processes and the external forcing to realistically simulate the AMO and HRV rainfall.

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Dong Si and Yihui Ding

Abstract

In this study, it was found that the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) are shown to be the two major drivers of the interdecadal variability of summer rainfall over East Asia. The first leading mode (PC1) of this interdecadal variability—associated with an in-phase variation of rainfall anomalies along the Yangtze River valley and Huanghe–Huaihe River valley in China—is attributed to the PDO, while the second leading mode (PC2)—associated with seesawlike rainfall anomalies between the Yangtze River valley and Huanghe–Huaihe River valley—is attributed to the AMO. The AMO teleconnects its influence to the East Asian region, and beyond, through a circumglobal stationary baroclinic wave train extending from the Atlantic Ocean, through the Eurasian continent, and extending to North America. The AMO also altered the nature of the PDO through this atmospheric teleconnection, resulting in the occurrence of a different PDO pattern (“pseudo-PDO”) between the 1960s and 2010s. The pseudo-PDO has a different anomalous SST pattern in both the tropical and midlatitude Pacific compared to the conventional PDO. The pseudo-PDO causes a distinct atmospheric response in East Asia leading to an opposite relationship with the PC1 compared to the conventional PDO, thus leading to a change in the direction of the influence of the PDO on PC1 between the 1880s–1950s and the 1960s–2010s.

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Dong Si and Yihui Ding

Abstract

Observational evidence indicates that the correlation between Tibetan Plateau (TP) winter snow and East Asian (EA) summer precipitation changed in the late 1990s. During the period 1979–99, the positive correlation between the TP winter snow and the summer precipitation along the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern Japan was disrupted by the decadal climate shift. In contrast, the summer precipitation over the Huaihe River valley (HRV) and the Korean Peninsula showed a strong positive correlation with the preceding winter snow over the TP during the period 2000–11.

The radiosonde temperature measurements over the TP show a pronounced warming since the late 1990s. This warming is associated with the significant increase in surface sensible heat flux and longwave radiation into atmosphere. The latter is closely related to the decrease of surface albedo and the soil hydrological effect of melting snow due to the decadal decrease in the preceding winter and spring snow over the TP. The TP warming induced by the decrease in winter snow, together with the cooling of the sea surface temperature in the tropical central and eastern Pacific, intensifies the land–sea thermal contrast in the subsequent spring and summer over EA, thus causing a northward advance of the EA summer monsoon. Accompanying the northward migration of the summer monsoon, the summer precipitation belt over EA shifts northward. Consequently, the high summer precipitation region over EA correlating with the preceding winter snow over the TP has shifted northward from the YRV and southern Japan to the HRV and the Korean Peninsula since the late 1990s.

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Si Gao, Shunan Zhai, Long S. Chiu, and Dong Xia

Abstract

An improved high-resolution satellite enthalpy flux dataset is employed to study the composites of initial (i.e., t = 0 h) latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF), and their bulk variables associated with four intensity-change categories of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the western North Pacific Ocean—rapidly intensifying (RI), slowly intensifying, neutral, and weakening—in a vertical wind shear–relative coordinate system with horizontal dimensions normalized by the radius of maximum wind. Results show that RI TCs are associated with significantly higher LHF and SHF in all TC environments than non-RI TCs, which are mainly attributable to the air–sea humidity difference (DQ) and the air–sea temperature difference (DT), respectively. Higher DQ and DT are primarily due to significantly higher sea surface temperature (SST) underlying RI TCs, emphasizing the crucial role of SST in supplying more energy to TCs that undergo rapid intensification, in which LHF plays a more important role than SHF. Relative to non-RI TCs, LHF and SHF for RI TCs show a more symmetric pattern. The magnitude and pattern of air–sea enthalpy flux could serve as potential predictors for rapid intensification of TCs.

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Dong Si, Aixue Hu, Huijun Wang, and Qingchen Chao

Abstract

In contrast to dominant interannual time-scale variability in other ocean basins, the leading observed mode variability in the Atlantic is characterized as a basinwide seesaw-like sea surface temperature variability between the North and South Atlantic on a multidecadal time scale (approximately 60–80 years), known as the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV). AMV has been identified as a key driver for climate shifts that occurred in the mid-1960s and late 1990s. Here we attempt to predict the summer AMV by analyzing decadal prediction experiments from two climate models. Results show that these climate models with proper initialization do a better job than uninitialized historical runs, and are capable of predicting the observed AMV time evolution. Our models predict that the AMV will be in a neutral to slightly negative phase, leading to a warm–dry trend over western Europe and North Africa and a cold–wet trend (cold relative to the warming trend) over southeastern China and Indochina in the next few years.

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Dong Xia, Haobo Tan, Ling Chen, Weiqiang Mo, Zhiyang Yuan, and Si Gao

Abstract

Observation of UV radiation is of major importance to human health and to the calculation of photochemical reaction rates. However, the sensitivity of UV radiometers decays because of equipment aging. A correction method is therefore proposed by using a decrement formula that is approximately a quadratic function of time and is obtained by fitting the clear-sky observation data from an aged UVS-AB-T UV radiometer with the data simulated by the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model. The corrected data from the older radiometer are verified by the data from another newer radiometer on selected clear-sky days. The results show a high correlation and a low bias between the radiometers, and the mean of the corrected data from the older radiometer is 94.5% of that from the newer radiometer. After a long time of use, the decrement of the observation data would increase dramatically and errors of the data after correction would still be significant. In Dongguan, China, a recommendation is made that a UV radiometer should not be used for more than 5 years when the decrement rate reaches 50%.

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A. Timmermann, Y. Okumura, S.-I. An, A. Clement, B. Dong, E. Guilyardi, A. Hu, J. H. Jungclaus, M. Renold, T. F. Stocker, R. J. Stouffer, R. Sutton, S.-P. Xie, and J. Yin

Abstract

The influences of a substantial weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on the tropical Pacific climate mean state, the annual cycle, and ENSO variability are studied using five different coupled general circulation models (CGCMs). In the CGCMs, a substantial weakening of the AMOC is induced by adding freshwater flux forcing in the northern North Atlantic. In response, the well-known surface temperature dipole in the low-latitude Atlantic is established, which reorganizes the large-scale tropical atmospheric circulation by increasing the northeasterly trade winds. This leads to a southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the tropical Atlantic and also the eastern tropical Pacific. Because of evaporative fluxes, mixing, and changes in Ekman divergence, a meridional temperature anomaly is generated in the northeastern tropical Pacific, which leads to the development of a meridionally symmetric thermal background state. In four out of five CGCMs this leads to a substantial weakening of the annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific and a subsequent intensification of ENSO variability due to nonlinear interactions. In one of the CGCM simulations, an ENSO intensification occurs as a result of a zonal mean thermocline shoaling.

Analysis suggests that the atmospheric circulation changes forced by tropical Atlantic SSTs can easily influence the large-scale atmospheric circulation and hence tropical eastern Pacific climate. Furthermore, it is concluded that the existence of the present-day tropical Pacific cold tongue complex and the annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific are partly controlled by the strength of the AMOC. The results may have important implications for the interpretation of global multidecadal variability and paleo-proxy data.

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Rongqing Han, Hui Wang, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Arun Kumar, Weijing Li, Lindsey N. Long, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Peitao Peng, Wanqiu Wang, Dong Si, Xiaolong Jia, Ming Zhao, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Timothy E. LaRow, Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Suzana J. Camargo, Naomi Henderson, Jeffrey A. Jonas, and Kevin J. E. Walsh

Abstract

An assessment of simulations of the interannual variability of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the western North Pacific (WNP) and its association with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as a subsequent diagnosis for possible causes of model biases generated from simulated large-scale climate conditions, are documented in the paper. The model experiments are carried out by the Hurricane Work Group under the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Research Program (CLIVAR) using five global climate models (GCMs) with a total of 16 ensemble members forced by the observed sea surface temperature and spanning the 28-yr period from 1982 to 2009. The results show GISS and GFDL model ensemble means best simulate the interannual variability of TCs, and the multimodel ensemble mean (MME) follows. Also, the MME has the closest climate mean annual number of WNP TCs and the smallest root-mean-square error to the observation.

Most GCMs can simulate the interannual variability of WNP TCs well, with stronger TC activities during two types of El Niño—namely, eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) El Niño—and weaker activity during La Niña. However, none of the models capture the differences in TC activity between EP and CP El Niño as are shown in observations. The inability of models to distinguish the differences in TC activities between the two types of El Niño events may be due to the bias of the models in response to the shift of tropical heating associated with CP El Niño.

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