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K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, J. Remiszewska, M. Witek, E. A. Reid, J. S. Reid, A. Bucholtz, and B. Holben

Abstract

Aerosol radiative forcing in the Persian Gulf region is derived from data collected during the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2). This campaign took place in August and September of 2004. The land–sea-breeze circulation modulates the diurnal variability of the aerosol properties and aerosol radiative forcing at the surface. Larger aerosol radiative forcing is observed during the land breeze in comparison to the sea breeze. The aerosol optical properties change as the onshore wind brings slightly cleaner air. The mean diurnal value of the surface aerosol forcing during the UAE2 campaign is about −20 W m−2, which corresponds to large aerosol optical thickness (0.45 at 500 nm). The aerosol forcing efficiency [i.e., broadband shortwave forcing per unit optical depth at 550 nm, W m−2 (τ 500)−1] is −53 W m−2 (τ 500)−1 and the average single scattering albedo is 0.93 at 550 nm.

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Gregory Sinnett, Kristen A. Davis, Andrew J. Lucas, Sarah N. Giddings, Emma Reid, Madeleine E. Harvey, and Ian Stokes

Abstract

Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) uses Raman scatter from laser light pulsed through an optical fiber to observe temperature along a cable. Temperature resolution across broad scales (seconds to many months, and centimeters to kilometers) make DTS an attractive oceanographic tool. Although DTS is an established technology, oceanographic DTS observations are rare since significant deployment, calibration, and operational challenges exist in dynamic oceanographic environments. Here, results from an experiment designed to address likely oceanographic DTS configuration, calibration, and data processing challenges provide guidance for oceanographic DTS applications. Temperature error due to suboptimal calibration under difficult deployment conditions is quantified for several common scenarios. Alternative calibration, analysis, and deployment techniques that help mitigate this error and facilitate successful DTS application in dynamic ocean conditions are discussed.

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P. Joe, S. Belair, N.B. Bernier, V. Bouchet, J. R. Brook, D. Brunet, W. Burrows, J.-P. Charland, A. Dehghan, N. Driedger, C. Duhaime, G. Evans, A.-B. Filion, R. Frenette, J. de Grandpré, I. Gultepe, D. Henderson, A. Herdt, N. Hilker, L. Huang, E. Hung, G. Isaac, C.-H. Jeong, D. Johnston, J. Klaassen, S. Leroyer, H. Lin, M. MacDonald, J. MacPhee, Z. Mariani, T. Munoz, J. Reid, A. Robichaud, Y. Rochon, K. Shairsingh, D. Sills, L. Spacek, C. Stroud, Y. Su, N. Taylor, J. Vanos, J. Voogt, J. M. Wang, T. Wiechers, S. Wren, H. Yang, and T. Yip

Abstract

The Pan and Parapan American Games (PA15) are the third largest sporting event in the world and were held in Toronto in the summer of 2015 (10–26 July and 7–15 August). This was used as an opportunity to coordinate and showcase existing innovative research and development activities related to weather, air quality (AQ), and health at Environment and Climate Change Canada. New observational technologies included weather stations based on compact sensors that were augmented with black globe thermometers, two Doppler lidars, two wave buoys, a 3D lightning mapping array, two new AQ stations, and low-cost AQ and ultraviolet sensors. These were supplemented by observations from other agencies, four mobile vehicles, two mobile AQ laboratories, and two supersites with enhanced vertical profiling. High-resolution modeling for weather (250 m and 1 km), AQ (2.5 km), lake circulation (2 km), and wave models (250-m, 1-km, and 2.5-km ensembles) were run. The focus of the science, which guided the design of the observation network, was to characterize and investigate the lake breeze, which affects thunderstorm initiation, air pollutant transport, and heat stress. Experimental forecasts and nowcasts were provided by research support desks. Web portals provided access to the experimental products for other government departments, public health authorities, and PA15 decision-makers. The data have been released through the government of Canada’s Open Data Portal and as a World Meteorological Organization’s Global Atmospheric Watch Urban Research Meteorology and Environment dataset.

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William L. Smith Jr., Christy Hansen, Anthony Bucholtz, Bruce E. Anderson, Matthew Beckley, Joseph G. Corbett, Richard I. Cullather, Keith M. Hines, Michelle Hofton, Seiji Kato, Dan Lubin, Richard H. Moore, Michal Segal Rosenhaimer, Jens Redemann, Sebastian Schmidt, Ryan Scott, Shi Song, John D. Barrick, J. Bryan Blair, David H. Bromwich, Colleen Brooks, Gao Chen, Helen Cornejo, Chelsea A. Corr, Seung-Hee Ham, A. Scott Kittelman, Scott Knappmiller, Samuel LeBlanc, Norman G. Loeb, Colin Miller, Louis Nguyen, Rabindra Palikonda, David Rabine, Elizabeth A. Reid, Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge, Peter Pilewskie, Yohei Shinozuka, Douglas Spangenberg, Paul Stackhouse, Patrick Taylor, K. Lee Thornhill, David van Gilst, and Edward Winstead

Abstract

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) acquired unique aircraft data on atmospheric radiation and sea ice properties during the critical late summer to autumn sea ice minimum and commencement of refreezing. The C-130 aircraft flew 15 missions over the Beaufort Sea between 4 and 24 September 2014. ARISE deployed a shortwave and longwave broadband radiometer (BBR) system from the Naval Research Laboratory; a Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) from the University of Colorado Boulder; the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) from the NASA Ames Research Center; cloud microprobes from the NASA Langley Research Center; and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) laser altimeter system from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These instruments sampled the radiant energy exchange between clouds and a variety of sea ice scenarios, including prior to and after refreezing began. The most critical and unique aspect of ARISE mission planning was to coordinate the flight tracks with NASA Cloud and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensor observations in such a way that satellite sensor angular dependence models and derived top-of-atmosphere fluxes could be validated against the aircraft data over large gridbox domains of order 100–200 km. This was accomplished over open ocean, over the marginal ice zone (MIZ), and over a region of heavy sea ice concentration, in cloudy and clear skies. ARISE data will be valuable to the community for providing better interpretation of satellite energy budget measurements in the Arctic and for process studies involving ice–cloud–atmosphere energy exchange during the sea ice transition period.

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E. Povl Abrahamsen, Sandra Barreira, Cecilia M. Bitz, Amy Butler, Kyle R. Clem, Steve Colwell, Lawrence Coy, Jos de Laat, Marcel D. du Plessis, Ryan L. Fogt, Helen Amanda Fricker, John Fyfe, Alex S. Gardner, Sarah T. Gille, Tessa Gorte, L. Gregor, Will Hobbs, Bryan Johnson, Eric Keenan, Linda M. Keller, Natalya A. Kramarova, Matthew A. Lazzara, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Jan L. Lieser, Hongxing Liu, Craig S. Long, Michelle Maclennan, Robert A. Massom, François Massonnet, Matthew R. Mazloff, David Mikolajczyk, A. Narayanan, Eric R. Nash, Paul A. Newman, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Michael Pitts, Bastien Y. Queste, Phillip Reid, F. Roquet, Michelle L. Santee, Susan Strahan, Sebastiann Swart, and Lei Wang
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