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S. N. Estrada-Allis, B. Barceló-Llull, E. Pallàs-Sanz, A. Rodríguez-Santana, J. M. A. C. Souza, E. Mason, J. C. McWilliams, and P. Sangrà


The complex structure of the vertical velocity field inside an anticyclonic eddy located just south of the Canary Islands is analyzed through a high-resolution ocean model. Based on the flow divergence, vertical velocity is decomposed into various forcing components. The analysis reveals that advection and stretching of vorticity are the most important forcing contributions to the vertical velocity within the eddy. In the mixed layer, a small-scale multipolar vertical velocity pattern dominates. This is the result of vertical mixing effects that enhance the surface vertical velocity by increasing the ageostrophic velocity profile. As a result, an ageostrophic secondary circulation arises that acts to restore thermal-wind balance, inducing strong vertical motions. Nonlinear Ekman pumping/suction patterns resemble the small-scale vertical velocity field, suggesting that nonlinear Ekman effects are important in explaining the complex vertical velocity, despite an overestimate of its magnitude. In the eddy thermocline, the vertical velocity is characterized by a dipolar pattern, which experiences changes in intensity and axisymmetrization with time. The dipolar vertical velocity distribution arises from the imbalance between the advection and stretching of the vorticity forcing terms. A vertical velocity dipole is also obtained by solving a generalized omega equation from density and horizontal velocity fields, which also shows a preponderance of the ageostrophic term. The ubiquity of dipolar vertical velocity distributions inside isolated anticyclones is supported by recent observational findings in the same oceanic region.

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C. D. Hewitt, E. Allis, S. J. Mason, M. Muth, R. Pulwarty, J. Shumake-Guillemot, A. Bucher, M. Brunet, A. M. Fischer, A. M. Hama, R. K. Kolli, F. Lucio, O. Ndiaye, and B. Tapia


There is growing awareness among governments, businesses, and the general public of risks arising from changes to our climate on time scales from months through to decades. Some climatic changes could be unprecedented in their harmful socioeconomic impacts, while others with adequate forewarning and planning could offer benefits. There is therefore a pressing need for decision-makers, including policy-makers, to have access to and to use high-quality, accessible, relevant, and credible climate information about the past, present, and future to help make better-informed decisions and policies. We refer to the provision and use of such information as climate services. Established programs of research and operational activities are improving observations and climate monitoring, our understanding of climate processes, climate variability and change, and predictions and projections of the future climate. Delivering climate information (including data and knowledge) in a way that is usable and useful for decision-makers has had less attention, and society has yet to optimally benefit from the available information. While weather services routinely help weather-sensitive decision-making, similar services for decisions on longer time scales are less well established. Many organizations are now actively developing climate services, and a growing number of decision-makers are keen to benefit from such services. This article describes progress made over the past decade developing, delivering, and using climate services, in particular from the worldwide effort galvanizing around the Global Framework for Climate Services under the coordination of UN agencies. The article highlights challenges in making further progress and proposes potential new directions to address such challenges.

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