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E. G. Bowen

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E. G. Bowen

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E. G. Bowen

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A basic assumption made in the design of most cloud seeding experiments is that each seeded period is independent of those which preceded it, i.e., that no cumulative effects are present. It now appears that this assumption is not entirely, valid.

An investigation is made of the effect of persistence in a typical cloud seeding experiment and it is shown that one consequence is an apparent reduction in the result of seeding with time, There is reason to believe that this has actually occurred in many cloud seeding experiments.

A modified design of experiment is suggested which will indicate whether cumulative effects have occurred and will allow a more accurate assessment of the overall result of cloud seeding.

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E. G. Bowen

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Examination of rainfall figures for a large number of stations shows that there is a tendency for more rain to fall on certain calendar dates than on others. There is a close correspondence between the dates of the rainfall maxima in both the northern and southern hemispheres, and this is difficult to explain on a climatological basis. The effect might, however, be due to an extraterrestrial influence.

The rainfall peaks occur approximately 30 days after prominent meteor showers, and it is suggested that they are due to the nucleating effect of meteoritic dust falling into cloud systems in the lower atmosphere, the time difference being accounted for by the rate of fall of the material through the atmosphere.

The hypothesis is tested for a particular meteor stream, the Bielids, which is known to have a 6.5-year period. The rainfall 30 days after the meteor shower is found to have a similar period. Furthermore, the phase of the rainfall periodicity is almost identical with that of the meteor shower.

The data examined are confined to the month of January, and it is proposed to extend the investigation to other months in future papers.

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Paul T. Schickedanz and E. G. Bowen

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A technique for computing climatological power spectra based on the concept of utilizing non-integer values in the sine and cosine waveforms (NI technique) is developed and applied to climatological rainfall data. This technique provides a powerful alternative to the more common techniques used in the computation of climatological power spectra. The major advantage of this technique is the greatly improved resolution of wavelengths in the 5–25 year region, often a critical region of interest for climatologists. The technique produces spectral density values which are not necessarily independent; however, methods of specifying and then testing the departure from independence (orthogonality) are given. Furthermore, it is shown that the usual equations for the Fourier coefficients are special cases of the more general condition in which the spectral estimates include some degree of non-independence (i.e., lack of orthogonality). It is anticipated that this technique will have wide applicability in climatology, meteorology, hydrology and the other geophysical sciences.

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Summary of Talk by E. G. Bowen
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Philip J. Klotzbach, Kimberly M. Wood, Michael M. Bell, Eric S. Blake, Steven G. Bowen, Louis-Philippe Caron, Jennifer M. Collins, Ethan J. Gibney, Carl J. Schreck III, and Ryan E. Truchelut

Abstract

The active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season produced 30 named storms, 14 hurricanes, and 7 major hurricanes (Category 3+ on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale). Though the season was active overall, the final two months (October–November) raised 2020 into the upper echelon of Atlantic hurricane activity for integrated metrics such as Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE). This study focuses on October–November 2020, when 7 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 5 major hurricanes formed and produced ACE of 74 * 104 kt2. Since 1950, October–November 2020 ranks tied for 3rd for named storms, 1st for hurricanes and major hurricanes, and 2nd for ACE. Six named storms also underwent rapid intensification (≥30 kt intensification in ≤24 hr) in October–November 2020—the most on record.

This manuscript includes a climatological analysis of October–November tropical cyclones (TCs) and their primary formation regions. In 2020, anomalously low wind shear in the western Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, likely driven by a moderate intensity La Niña event and anomalously high sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Caribbean provided dynamic and thermodynamic conditions that were much more conducive than normal for late-season TC formation and rapid intensification. This study also highlights October–November 2020 landfalls, including Hurricanes Delta and Zeta in Louisiana and in Mexico and Hurricanes Eta and Iota in Nicaragua. The active late season in the Caribbean would have been anticipated by a statistical model using the July–September-averaged ENSO Longitude Index and Atlantic warm pool SSTs as predictors.

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