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W. C. Kocmond and E. J. Mack

Abstract

Simultaneous airborne observations of Aitken and cloud nuclei upwind and downwind of Buffalo, N.Y., were made in an effort to determine the effects of air pollution on condensation nucleus concentration. The data show significant increases over background concentrations of both Aitken and cloud nuclei (at 0.3% supersaturation) immediately downwind of pollution sources, and, also, that a secondary maximum in cloud nucleus concentration usually occurs about 10–15 mi farther downwind. In spite of these large increases in the total number of nuclei downwind of an industrial-urban complex such as the Niagara Frontier, the concentration of cloud and Aitken particulates approaches upwind background levels within 20–50 mi of the sources.

Attempts to define the role (if any) of air pollution in cloud microstructure were confined to a single set of airborne observations. The limited drop-size distribution and cloud nucleus data were not sufficient to justify firm conclusions, and additional measurements are recommended.

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R. J. Pilié, E. J. Mack, W. C. Kocmond, W. J. Eadie, and C. W. Rogers

Abstract

Extensive measurements were made of the microphysics of valley fog in the Chemung River Valley near Elmira, New York. This paper discusses data on drop size distributions, drop concentrations, liquid water contents, and haze and cloud nucleus concentrations obtained on eight fog nights.

The behavior patterns of the microphysical variables were found to be extremely consistent. Shallow ground fog usually occurs prior to the formation of deep valley fog. The data show that ground fog is characterized by droplet concentrations of 100 to 200 per cubic centimeter in the 1 to 10 μm radius range with mean radii of 2 to 4 μm. As deep fog forms aloft, droplet concentration near the surface decreases to less than 2 cm−3 and the mean radius increases from 6 to 12 μm. Droplets of radii <3 μm disappear. Thereafter, droplet concentration and liquid water content increase gradually until the first visibility minimum at the surface when typical values range from 12 to 25 cm−3 and 50 to 150 mg cm−3, respectively. The small droplets reappear at first visibility minimum. Subsequently, bimodal drop size distributions occur in approximately half of the fogs with one mode at 2–3 μm radius and a second mode between 6 and 12 μm. Aloft, drop size distributions become narrower and the mean radius decreases with both increasing altitude and increasing age of the fog. The cloud nucleus concentration active at S = 3.0% is usually between 800 and 1000 cm−3 near the surface and decreases to 500–800 cm−3 at 300 m.

It is argued from the data that supersaturation in the thin ground fog exceeds that in deep fog. The initial surface obscuration in deep fog appears to be due to droplets that form aloft and are transported downward into unsaturated air by turbulent diffusion. New droplets are apparently not generated near the surface until after the first visibility minimum.

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R. J. Pilié, E. J. Mack, W. C. Kocmond, C. W. Rogers, and W. J. Eadie

Abstract

Extensive measurements were made of micrometeorological variables associated with eleven fogs in the Chemung River Valley near Elmira, N.Y. Temperature was measured at five levels on a 17 m tower, dew point at three levels, wind speed and direction at two levels, and net radiation and vertical wind at one level. Visibility was measured at three locations, and dew deposition and evaporation at one location near the surface. Vertical temperature distributions were also measured using an aircraft. The microphysical variables are discussed in Part II of this paper.

Consistent patterns of behavior of all micrometeorological variables were observed. The formation of ground fog may be explained by radiational cooling of the surface and associated low-level heat exchange. To explain observed temperature behavior (maximum cooling rate near 100 m in the 6 h preceeding fog) and the initial formation of a thin fog layer slightly below that level, it seems necessary to invoke Defant's model of valley circulation. Radiation divergence at the fog layer aloft then produces an inversion near the fog top and unstable conditions at lower levels. The fog base therefore propagates downward.

Dew deposition is responsible for formation of a low-level dew point inversion before fog forms, a necessary condition for initial fog formation aloft. The inversion breaks as fog forms and dew weight is constant from that time until sunrise. Evaporation of dew after sunrise maintains saturation throughout the fog depth as fog temperature increases, and is therefore responsible for fog persistence. Dissipation of fog occurs when evaporation rate is no longer adequate to maintain saturation.

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R. J. Pilié, E. J. Mack, C. W. Rogers, U. Katz, and W. C. Kocmond

Abstract

This paper summarizes the results of seven field expeditions aboard the Naval Postgraduate School's R/V Acania, designed specifically to study the formation of marine fog along the California coast. On the basis of observations and analyses, physical models have been formulated for the formation and persistence of at least four different types of marine fog which occur off the West Coast: 1) fog triggered by instability and mixing over warm water patches; 2) fog developed as a result of lowering (thickening) stratus clouds; 3) fog associated with low-level mesoscale convergence; and 4) coastal radiation fog advected to sea via nocturnal land breezes. In addition, it has been found that the triggering of embryonic fogs and further downwind development produces a synoptic-scale fog-stratus system and is responsible for redevelopment of the unstable marine boundary layer after Santa Ana events.

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Robert J. H. Dunn, F. Aldred, Nadine Gobron, John B. Miller, Kate M. Willett, M. Ades, Robert Adler, Richard, P. Allan, Rob Allan, J. Anderson, Anthony Argüez, C. Arosio, John A. Augustine, C. Azorin-Molina, J. Barichivich, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, David I. Berry, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier Bock, X. Bodin, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, S. A. Buehler, B. Calmettes, Laura Carrea, Laura Castia, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, E.-S. Chung, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Owen R. Cooper, Richard C. Cornes, Curt Covey, J.-F. Cretaux, M. Crotwell, Sean M. Davis, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Doug Degenstein, R. Delaloye, Larry Di Girolamo, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, Gregory Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, J. Garforth, Matthew Gentry, S. K. Gupta, S. Hahn, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, D. L. Hemming, M. Hirschi, Shu-pen (Ben) Ho, F. Hrbacek, Daan Hubert, Dale F. Hurst, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Viju O. John, Philip D. Jones, Robert Junod, J. W. Kaiser, V. Kaufmann, A. Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Elizabeth C. Kent, R. Kidd, Hyungjun Kim, Z. Kipling, A. Koppa, B. M. Kraemer, D. P. Kratz, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, D. Lavers, Norman G. Loeb, Diego Loyola, R. Madelon, Michael Mayer, M. F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, Christopher J. Merchant, Diego G. Miralles, L. Moesinger, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, L. Mösinger, Jens Mühle, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Ben Noll, J. O’Keefe, Tim J. Osborn, T. Park, A. J. Pasik, C. Pellet, Maury S. Pelto, S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, G. Petron, Coda Phillips, S. Po-Chedley, L. Polvani, W. Preimesberger, D. G. Rains, W. J. Randel, Nick A. Rayner, Samuel Rémy, L. Ricciardulli, A. D. Richardson, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, N. J. Rodríguez-Fernández, K.H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, A. Rozanov, T. Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, R. W. Schlegel, S. Sharma, Lei Shi, Adrian J. Simmons, Carolina Siso, Sharon L. Smith, B. J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Martin Stengel, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Sunny Sun-Mack, P. Tans, S. J. Thackeray, E. Thibert, D. Tokuda, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald van der A, Robin van der Schalie, Gerard van der Schrier, M. van der Vliet, Guido R. van der Werf, A. Vance, Jean-Paul Vernier, Isaac J. Vimont, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray Wang, Markus Weber, David Wiese, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Takmeng Wong, R. Iestyn Woolway, Xinjia Zhou, Xungang Yin, Guangyu Zhao, Lin Zhao, Jerry R. Ziemke, Markus Ziese, and R. M. Zotta
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