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Ally M. Toure, Matthew Rodell, Zong-Liang Yang, Hiroko Beaudoing, Edward Kim, Yongfei Zhang, and Yonghwan Kwon

Abstract

This paper evaluates the simulation of snow by the Community Land Model, version 4 (CLM4), the land model component of the Community Earth System Model, version 1.0.4 (CESM1.0.4). CLM4 was run in an offline mode forced with the corrected land-only replay of the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-Land) and the output was evaluated for the period from January 2001 to January 2011 over the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 30°N. Simulated snow-cover fraction (SCF), snow depth, and snow water equivalent (SWE) were compared against a set of observations including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) SCF, the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) snow cover, the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) daily snow analysis products, snow depth from the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer (COOP) program, and Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) SWE observations. CLM4 SCF was converted into snow-cover extent (SCE) to compare with MODIS SCE. It showed good agreement, with a correlation coefficient of 0.91 and an average bias of −1.54 × 102 km2. Overall, CLM4 agreed well with IMS snow cover, with the percentage of correctly modeled snow–no snow being 94%. CLM4 snow depth and SWE agreed reasonably well with the CMC product, with the average bias (RMSE) of snow depth and SWE being 0.044 m (0.19 m) and −0.010 m (0.04 m), respectively. CLM4 underestimated SNOTEL SWE and COOP snow depth. This study demonstrates the need to improve the CLM4 snow estimates and constitutes a benchmark against which improvement of the model through data assimilation can be measured.

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James Overland, Jennifer A. Francis, Richard Hall, Edward Hanna, Seong-Joong Kim, and Timo Vihma

Abstract

The potential of recent Arctic changes to influence hemispheric weather is a complex and controversial topic with considerable uncertainty, as time series of potential linkages are short (<10 yr) and understanding involves the relative contribution of direct forcing by Arctic changes on a chaotic climatic system. A way forward is through further investigation of atmospheric dynamic mechanisms. During several exceptionally warm Arctic winters since 2007, sea ice loss in the Barents and Kara Seas initiated eastward-propagating wave trains of high and low pressure. Anomalous high pressure east of the Ural Mountains advected Arctic air over central and eastern Asia, resulting in persistent cold spells. Blocking near Greenland related to low-level temperature anomalies led to northerly flow into eastern North America, inducing persistent cold periods. Potential Arctic connections in Europe are less clear. Variability in the North Pacific can reinforce downstream Arctic changes, and Arctic amplification can accentuate the impact of Pacific variability. The authors emphasize multiple linkage mechanisms that are regional, episodic, and based on amplification of existing jet stream wave patterns, which are the result of a combination of internal variability, lower-tropospheric temperature anomalies, and midlatitude teleconnections. The quantitative impact of Arctic change on midlatitude weather may not be resolved within the foreseeable future, yet new studies of the changing Arctic and subarctic low-frequency dynamics, together with additional Arctic observations, can contribute to improved skill in extended-range forecasts, as planned by the WMO Polar Prediction Project (PPP).

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Eric Rappin, Rezaul Mahmood, Udaysankar Nair, Roger A. Pielke Sr., William Brown, Steve Oncley, Joshua Wurman, Karen Kosiba, Aaron Kaulfus, Chris Phillips, Emilee Lachenmeier, Joseph Santanello Jr., Edward Kim, and Patricia Lawston-Parker

Abstract

Extensive expansion in irrigated agriculture has taken place over the last half century. Due to increased irrigation and resultant land use land cover change, the central United States has seen a decrease in temperature and changes in precipitation during the second half of 20th century. To investigate the impacts of widespread commencement of irrigation at the beginning of the growing season and continued irrigation throughout the summer on local and regional weather, the Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (GRAINEX) was conducted in the spring and summer of 2018 in southeastern Nebraska. GRAINEX consisted of two, 15-day intensive observation periods. Observational platforms from multiple agencies and universities were deployed to investigate the role of irrigation in surface moisture content, heat fluxes, diurnal boundary layer evolution, and local precipitation.

This article provides an overview of the data collected and an analysis of the role of irrigation in land-atmosphere interactions on time scales from the seasonal to the diurnal. The analysis shows that a clear irrigation signal was apparent during the peak growing season in mid-July. This paper shows the strong impact of irrigation on surface fluxes, near-surface temperature and humidity, as well as boundary layer growth and decay.

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Paul E. Racette, Ed R. Westwater, Yong Han, Albin J. Gasiewski, Marian Klein, Domenico Cimini, David C. Jones, Will Manning, Edward J. Kim, James R. Wang, Vladimir Leuski, and Peter Kiedron

Abstract

Extremely dry conditions characterized by amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) as low as 1–2 mm commonly occur in high-latitude regions during the winter months. While such dry atmospheres carry only a few percent of the latent heat energy compared to tropical atmospheres, the effects of low vapor amounts on the polar radiation budget—both directly through modulation of longwave radiation and indirectly through the formation of clouds—are considerable. Accurate measurements of PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve polar radiation models for use in understanding and predicting change in the climatically sensitive polar regions. To this end, the strong water-vapor absorption line at 183.310 GHz provides a unique means of measuring low amounts of PWV. Weighting function analysis, forward model calculations based upon a 7-yr radiosonde dataset, and retrieval simulations consistently predict that radiometric measurements made using several millimeter-wavelength (MMW) channels near the 183-GHz line, together with established microwave (MW) measurements near the 22.235-GHz water-vapor line and ∼31-GHz atmospheric absorption window can be used to determine within 5% uncertainty the full range of PWV expected in the Arctic. This combined capability stands in spite of accuracy limitations stemming from uncertainties due to the sensitivity of the vertical distribution of temperature and water vapor at MMW channels.

In this study the potential of MMW radiometry using the 183-GHz line for measuring low amounts of PWV is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The study uses data obtained during March 1999 as part of an experiment conducted at the Department of Energy’s Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Barrow, Alaska. Several radiometers from both NOAA and NASA were deployed during the experiment to provide the first combined MMW and MW ground-based dataset during dry Arctic conditions. Single-channel retrievals of PWV were performed using the MW and MMW data. Discrepancies in the retrieved values were found to be consistent with differences observed between measured brightness temperatures (TBs) and forward-modeled TBs based on concurrent radiosonde profiles. These discrepancies are greater than can be explained by radiometer measurement error alone; errors in the absorption models and uncertainty in the radiosonde measurements contribute to the discrepancies observed. The measurements, retrieval technique, and line model discrepancies are discussed, along with difficulties and potential of MMW/MW PWV measurement.

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J. K. Andersen, Liss M. Andreassen, Emily H. Baker, Thomas J. Ballinger, Logan T. Berner, Germar H. Bernhard, Uma S. Bhatt, Jarle W. Bjerke, Jason E. Box, L. Britt, R. Brown, David Burgess, John Cappelen, Hanne H. Christiansen, B. Decharme, C. Derksen, D. S. Drozdov, Howard E. Epstein, L. M. Farquharson, Sinead L. Farrell, Robert S. Fausto, Xavier Fettweis, Vitali E. Fioletov, Bruce C. Forbes, Gerald V. Frost, Sebastian Gerland, Scott J. Goetz, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Edward Hanna, Inger Hanssen-Bauer, Stefan Hendricks, Iolanda Ialongo, K. Isaksen, Bjørn Johnsen, L. Kaleschke, A. L. Kholodov, Seong-Joong Kim, Jack Kohler, Zachary Labe, Carol Ladd, Kaisa Lakkala, Mark J. Lara, Bryant Loomis, Bartłomiej Luks, K. Luojus, Matthew J. Macander, G. V. Malkova, Kenneth D. Mankoff, Gloria L. Manney, J. M. Marsh, Walt Meier, Twila A. Moon, Thomas Mote, L. Mudryk, F. J. Mueter, Rolf Müller, K. E. Nyland, Shad O’Neel, James E. Overland, Don Perovich, Gareth K. Phoenix, Martha K. Raynolds, C. H. Reijmer, Robert Ricker, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, E. A. G. Schuur, Martin Sharp, Nikolai I. Shiklomanov, C. J. P. P. Smeets, Sharon L. Smith, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Marco Tedesco, Richard L. Thoman, J. T. Thorson, X. Tian-Kunze, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Hans Tømmervik, Mark Tschudi, Dirk van As, R. S. W. van de Wal, Donald A. Walker, John E. Walsh, Muyin Wang, Melinda Webster, Øyvind Winton, Gabriel J. Wolken, K. Wood, Bert Wouters, and S. Zador
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