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Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1997 Atlantic hurricane season is summarized and the year’s tropical storms, hurricanes, and one subtropical storm are described. The tropical cyclones were relatively few in number, short lived, and weak compared to long-term climatology. Most systems originated outside the deep Tropics. Hurricane Danny was the only system to make landfall. It produced rainfall totals to near 1 m in southern Alabama and is blamed for five deaths. Hurricane Erika was responsible for the season’s two other fatalities, in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico.

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Edward N. Rappaport

A database was established for the period 1970–99 to assess the threat to life in the contiguous United States and adjacent coastal waters from Atlantic tropical cyclones. Freshwater floods caused more than one-half of the 600 U.S. deaths directly associated with tropical cyclones or their remnants during that 30-year period. More than three-quarters of the victims under age 13 died in rain-induced floods. Most fatalities occurred in inland counties. Storm surge losses were significantly (but perhaps only temporarily) less than in previous periods of comparable length. This paper presents a statistical summary of the casualties, explores reasons for the losses, and reviews efforts to mitigate the threats.

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Edward N. Rappaport

A 2000 Bulletin article by Rappaport (henceforth R0) identified the causes and provided analysis of the loss of life in the United States from Atlantic tropical cyclones during the period 1970 to 1999. That study focused on “direct deaths,” defined as fatalities attributable to the forces of the storms and their remnants. It covered a relatively quiet period in the Atlantic hurricane basin, averaging six hurricanes annually, of which one to two made U.S. landfall. R0 found for that period that rain-related incidents were the most common. There were no storm-surge disasters during that period (i.e., storms that

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Max Mayfield and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center (a component of the Tropical Prediction Center) tracked nine tropical storms, five of which became hurricanes, during the 1996 eastern North Pacific hurricane season. Five tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in Mexico. An overview of the 1996 hurricane season is presented.

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Edward N. Rappaport and Max Mayfield

Abstract

The 1991 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is summarized. The season comprised 16 tropical cyclones, consisting of 10 hurricanes, 4 tropical storms, and 2 tropical depressions.

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Richard J. Pasch and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1993 hurricane season is summarized. and individual tropical storms and hurricanes are described. Overall, the season was relatively inactive, but tropical storms and hurricanes were responsible for a large number of deaths in South America, Central America, and Mexico. Only one hurricane, Emily, made landfall in the United States.

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Colleen A. Leary and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

This paper describes the life cycle and precipitation structure of a Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) that passed through the data-collecting network of the Texas portion of the High Plains Cooperative Program (HIPLEX) on 8 June 1980. The MCC was the third in a sequence of five mesoscale convective systems that formed in association with a low-level frontal zone, short-wave perturbations in the 500 mb flow, outflow from previous convection, and upslope forcing. Quantitative radar data, together with surface, upper-air and satellite data, were used to determine the three-dimensional structure of the MCC. Isolated echoes formed over the Davis Mountains of far western Texas and merged as they moved eastward to form a mesoscale convective system with a lifetime of ∼24 h and a low-level precipitation pattern ∼500 km across. The leading edge of the low-level precipitation pattern was a north-south line of intense convective cells possessing the echo structure and low-level kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics typical of a squall line. Behind the leading edge was a well-defined minimum of reflectivity in the transition zone where convective cells dissipated. To the rear of the transition zone, an extensive region of precipitation was organized, during the system's mature stage, as a set of curved rainbands. Vertical cross sections through the rainbands show indications of weak cells in an otherwise stratiform radar reflectivity pattern possessing a distinctive radar bright band. A composite wind analysis shows a center of cyclonic inflow at 500 mb near the common center of curvature of the rainbands. The banded structure of precipitation behind the transition zone suggests an interaction between the mesoscale circulation of the MCC and the fine-wale substructure of its precipitation pattern. Anticyclonic outflow at 200 mb, together with inflow new 500 mb, suggests upward motion in the middle- and upper-level clouds in this region. Thermodynamic data behind the transition zone show the characteristic profile associated with a mesoscale unsaturated downdraft below a deep cloud based at middle levels.

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Max Mayfield, Lixion Avila, and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1992 hurricane season is summarized, including accounts of individual storms. Six tropical storms were tracked, of which four became hurricanes. In addition, one subtropical storm formed during the year. The season will be remembered most, however, for Hurricane Andrew. Although Andrew was the only hurricane to make landfall in the contiguous United States during 1992, it earned the distinction of becoming the most expensive natural disaster in United States history.

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Robert A. Houze Jr. and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 28 June 1974 squall line over the ship army of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme's Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) has been examined. Aircraft, radar, satellite, sounding and surface data have been employed in the analysis. This squall line is the third GATE oceanic squall line to have been subjected to intensive case study analysis. The vertical air motions and the relative amounts of convective and stratiform rain in this case were similar to those of the other two lines. However, this squall line moved more slowly, without discrete jumps, and the horizontal airflow relative to the system was quite different from that associated with the other two lines. Except at the surface, the strong front-to-rear relative flow normal to the line observed at most levels in the other cases was absent, with the relative flow tending instead to be parallel to the line. In the low to middle troposphere, relative flow parallel to the line from the north fed a post-squall mesoscale downdraft. In the middle to upper troposphere, relative flow parallel to the line from the south fed a post-squall mesoscale updraft. This upper-tropospheric relative flow from the south turned northwestward across the squall line and apparently advected enough condensate forward to produce a radar echo overhang and stratiform rain area ahead of the squall line.

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Miles B. Lawrence and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center tracked a record-breaking 27 tropical cyclones in the eastern North Pacific Ocean during 1992. Of the 27, 24 became tropical storms (also a record) and 14 became hurricanes. These records are based on data starting in 1966, which is when routine satellite surveillance began. Four hurricanes affected mainland Mexico.

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