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Edward N. Rappaport
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Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1997 Atlantic hurricane season is summarized and the year’s tropical storms, hurricanes, and one subtropical storm are described. The tropical cyclones were relatively few in number, short lived, and weak compared to long-term climatology. Most systems originated outside the deep Tropics. Hurricane Danny was the only system to make landfall. It produced rainfall totals to near 1 m in southern Alabama and is blamed for five deaths. Hurricane Erika was responsible for the season’s two other fatalities, in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico.

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Edward N. Rappaport

A database was established for the period 1970–99 to assess the threat to life in the contiguous United States and adjacent coastal waters from Atlantic tropical cyclones. Freshwater floods caused more than one-half of the 600 U.S. deaths directly associated with tropical cyclones or their remnants during that 30-year period. More than three-quarters of the victims under age 13 died in rain-induced floods. Most fatalities occurred in inland counties. Storm surge losses were significantly (but perhaps only temporarily) less than in previous periods of comparable length. This paper presents a statistical summary of the casualties, explores reasons for the losses, and reviews efforts to mitigate the threats.

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Edward N. Rappaport and Max Mayfield

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The 1991 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is summarized. The season comprised 16 tropical cyclones, consisting of 10 hurricanes, 4 tropical storms, and 2 tropical depressions.

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Max Mayfield and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center (a component of the Tropical Prediction Center) tracked nine tropical storms, five of which became hurricanes, during the 1996 eastern North Pacific hurricane season. Five tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in Mexico. An overview of the 1996 hurricane season is presented.

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Robert A. Houze Jr. and Edward N. Rappaport

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The 28 June 1974 squall line over the ship army of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme's Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) has been examined. Aircraft, radar, satellite, sounding and surface data have been employed in the analysis. This squall line is the third GATE oceanic squall line to have been subjected to intensive case study analysis. The vertical air motions and the relative amounts of convective and stratiform rain in this case were similar to those of the other two lines. However, this squall line moved more slowly, without discrete jumps, and the horizontal airflow relative to the system was quite different from that associated with the other two lines. Except at the surface, the strong front-to-rear relative flow normal to the line observed at most levels in the other cases was absent, with the relative flow tending instead to be parallel to the line. In the low to middle troposphere, relative flow parallel to the line from the north fed a post-squall mesoscale downdraft. In the middle to upper troposphere, relative flow parallel to the line from the south fed a post-squall mesoscale updraft. This upper-tropospheric relative flow from the south turned northwestward across the squall line and apparently advected enough condensate forward to produce a radar echo overhang and stratiform rain area ahead of the squall line.

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Richard J. Pasch and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1993 hurricane season is summarized. and individual tropical storms and hurricanes are described. Overall, the season was relatively inactive, but tropical storms and hurricanes were responsible for a large number of deaths in South America, Central America, and Mexico. Only one hurricane, Emily, made landfall in the United States.

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Edward N. Rappaport and B. Wayne Blanchard
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Lixion A. Avila and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1994 Atlantic hurricane season had only three hurricanes forming from just seven tropical storms. Several of these tropical cyclones, however, caused loss of life and great damage. Gordon, as a tropical storm, produced floods that killed more than 1100 people in Haiti. Alberto, Beryl, and Gordon hit the United States, causing 38 deaths and nearly $1 billion in damage over the southeastern states.

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Miles B. Lawrence and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center tracked a record-breaking 27 tropical cyclones in the eastern North Pacific Ocean during 1992. Of the 27, 24 became tropical storms (also a record) and 14 became hurricanes. These records are based on data starting in 1966, which is when routine satellite surveillance began. Four hurricanes affected mainland Mexico.

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