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Edwin L. Fisher

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Edwin L. Fisher

Abstract

A series of observations of the sea breeze has been made along a portion of the New England coast near Block Island, Rhode Island. These observations are presented in vertical cross-sections approximately 30 mi long perpendicular to the coast, with wind observations extending upward to an altitude of six thousand feet and temperature observations up to twenty-five hundred feet. The analysis is confined to two days on which the sea breeze was most clearly distinguishable from the over-riding flow and shows the development of the cellular structure of the sea breeze. The expected rotation of the system under the influence of the Coriolis effect is not at first evident, but an analysis of the behavior of the over-riding gradient flow reveals the possible presence of this acceleration of the wind field. In addition, there is evidence toward evening of a speeding up of the flow at low levels which presages the development of a low-level jet in the wind field.

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Edwin L. Fisher

Abstract

Series of observations of the sea breeze has been made along a portion of the New England coast near Block Island, Rhode Island. These observations were presented in an earlier paper (Fisher, 1960).

With these data as a basis, a dynamical theory of the sea breeze is described and a numerical solution of these sea-breeze equations is obtained. The solution shows the sea breeze in the stages of development and decay and succeeds in reproducing not only the gross features of the wind system but many of its small details as well. The model sea breeze develops a cellular structure similar to the observed system. The depth of the landward branch of the current, its velocity, the velocity of the return current aloft, the elevation, location, and timing of the maximum flow, agree closely with observations. The model also reproduces the rotational effects due to the Coriolis force. The accumulation of error in the model causes its behavior to become irregular by evening (14 hr from its start) so that the development of the low-level jet and other features of the dying system can only be poorly evaluated in the model.

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Edwin L. Fisher

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A previous study having suggested a relationship between sea-surface temperatures and hurricane behavior, it was felt that the mechanism producing this effect must be the eddy flux of energy from sea to air in the vicinity of a hurricane. This is investigated synoptically by means of the equations used by Jacobs and it is concluded that there is some evidence of a relationship.

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Edwin L. Fisher

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The behavior of hurricane tracks and the variations of the intensity of hurricanes are investigated in a study of the sea-surface temperatures around eleven hurricanes. By the use of several methods of analysis, it is found that there is distinct, although not conclusive, evidence that hurricanes tend to form near relatively warm ocean areas, that they tend to follow tracks along the areas of warmest water, and that they tend to weaken when they move over pronouncedly colder water.

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John A. Frizzola
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Edwin L. Fisher

Abstract

A series of pilot balloon observations has provided data for the analysis of vertical cross-sections of the wind field in the lowest 3500 ft of the atmosphere during three an breeze situations in the New York City area. The days were chosen with different superposed flow conditions and the following were noted:

1) The frontal characteristics of the sea breeze were found to he related to an opposing gradient flow.

2) Opposing gradient flow also caused the sea breeze to be shallower, to have lower velocities, to form later in the day and to retreat seaward earlier in the evening.

3) During two days an increase was found in the landward component of the sea breeze in the very lowest layer, near the coast line about sunset. This phenomenon had also been observed in a set of earlier observations at Block Island, Rhode Island.

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Edwin L. Fisher
and
Peter Caplan

Abstract

The feasibility of a dynamical model for forecasting the development and dissipation of fog and stratus is studied. Several simple models based on numerical solutions of the diffusion equation are developed and tested. The resulting predictions are examined with regard to the likelihood of achieving any degree of success with this type of model. The observational data required for the predictions, and the time and space scales on which the observations must be made are noted.

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