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Elliot Newman

Abstract

Normal maximum and minimum temperatures are computed for each date of the winter season from the 92-year Boston temperature record. The trend is removed from the normal and individual yearly values and standard deviations and errors are computed. Statistical significance levels are calculated and a count of significant values is made. The probability of obtaining these by chance is computed and found to be quite high. Average maximum and minimum values are computed for each date for each phase of the double sun-spot cycle in addition to a major-half phase and minor-half phase. A procedure similar to that mentioned earlier is followed and four phases out of 20 are found to have 1 per cent significance counts with a high degree of confidence. The standard deviations of both maximum and minimum temperatures for the eight phases exhibit cycles that correlate with the double sunspot cycle. The result of applying statistical tests indicates that the cycles are real. An apparent division of the winter season is examined in which singularities tend to occur in the early part of the winter during the minor-half phases and in the latter part of the winter during the major-half phases.

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Eric J. Jensen, Leonhard Pfister, David E. Jordan, Thaopaul V. Bui, Rei Ueyama, Hanwant B. Singh, Troy D. Thornberry, Andrew W. Rollins, Ru-Shan Gao, David W. Fahey, Karen H. Rosenlof, James W. Elkins, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, R. Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, Elliot L. Atlas, Maria A. Navarro Rodriguez, Steven C. Wofsy, Jasna Pittman, Charles G. Bardeen, Owen B. Toon, Bruce C. Kindel, Paul A. Newman, Matthew J. McGill, Dennis L. Hlavka, Leslie R. Lait, Mark R. Schoeberl, John W. Bergman, Henry B. Selkirk, M. Joan Alexander, Ji-Eun Kim, Boon H. Lim, Jochen Stutz, and Klaus Pfeilsticker

Abstract

The February–March 2014 deployment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft (see companion articles in this issue). The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes, as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes. The ATTREX data are publicly available online (at https://espoarchive.nasa.gov/).

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