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F. I. M. Thomas and M. J. Atkinson

Abstract

A new type of oxygen sensor for use on oceanic profiling CTDs has a response time that ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 s, depending on temperature. This oxygen (O2) sensor was calibrated in the field against O2 concentrations that were determined from Winkler titrations of Niskin-bottle water samples. Calibration coefficients were obtained from single casts and composite casts. When casts were calibrated separately, the mean error in predicting O2 concentrations was 1.22 ± 0.72 µM O2, n = 19 casts, and was not significantly different from the error between Niskin-bottle samples, which was 1.01 ± 2.33 µm O2, n = 33 triplicate or duplicate bottles. When casts wore combined into a composite cast for an entire cruise, however, the mean error in the calibrations increased to 5.03 ± 4.06 µm O2, n = 19 casts. These results also indicate that only three Niskin bottles on a cast are required to obtain an error of 1.0 µm in predicted oxygen. For routine use, we recommend calibrating each cast separately using either three or four measured O2 concentrations to obtain calibration coefficients.

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M. J. Atkinson, F. I. M. Thomas, and N. Larson

Abstract

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db over a range of temperatures from 2° to 38°C. Pressure decreased the output of the membrane sensor and increased the output of the microhole sensor. The pressure terms for both types of oxygen sensors were affected by temperature. The effect of pressure on both types of sensors can be quantified as exp (VP/RT), where V is a coefficient (cm3 mol−1), P is decibars, R′ is the gas constant (831.47 cm3 mol−1 db K−1), and T is kelvins. As water gets colder, V for both sensors increases. For temperatures less than 21°C, V for the membrane sensor is −33.7±0.54 cm3 mol−1, and V for the microbole sensor is 0.29±0.31 cm3 mol−1. The V's for calibrations of four oceanic casts had larger ranges than the laboratory experimental data: −27.6 to −34.9 cm3 mol−1 for the membrane sensor, and −0.4 to −2.9 cm3 mol−1 for the microhole sensor. At 10°C, increasing pressure to depths of 5000 m decreases current output of a membrane sensor approximately 50% and increases output of a microhole sensor about 0.6%. For field calibrations, the authors recommend using a constant V obtained by iterations of linear fits. The use of a pressure term with the form exp(VP/RT) appears to improve field calibrations of membrane oxygen sensors.

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F. I. M. Thomas, S. A. McCarthy, J. Bower, S. Krothapalli, M. J. Atkinson, and P. Flament

Abstract

Response characteristics of a microhole potentiostatic oxygen sensor and a Beckman membrane oxygen sensor were measured in a laboratory over temperatures ranging from 1° to 21°C. The response term τ of the microhole sensor changed 1.7-fold over this temperature range, and τ of the membrane sensor changed 1.6-fold. For the microhole sensor, the effect of temperature on τ can be modeled as lnτ+−6.5 + 1618T −1. For the membrane sensor the temperature effect on τ can be modeled as lnτ = −5.8 + 2116T −1, where T is temperature in kelvins.

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A. Roiger, J.-L. Thomas, H. Schlager, K. S. Law, J. Kim, A. Schäfler, B. Weinzierl, F. Dahlkötter, I. Krisch, L. Marelle, A. Minikin, J.-C. Raut, A. Reiter, M. Rose, M. Scheibe, P. Stock, R. Baumann, I. Bouarar, C. Clerbaux, M. George, T. Onishi, and J. Flemming

Abstract

Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically in the past few decades and the Arctic is increasingly open to transit shipping and natural resource extraction. However, large knowledge gaps exist regarding composition and impacts of emissions associated with these activities. Arctic hydrocarbon extraction is currently under development owing to the large oil and gas reserves in the region. Transit shipping through the Arctic as an alternative to the traditional shipping routes is currently underway. These activities are expected to increase emissions of air pollutants and climate forcers (e.g., aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic troposphere significantly in the future. The authors present the first measurements of these activities off the coast of Norway taken in summer 2012 as part of the European Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society (ACCESS) project. The objectives include quantifying the impact that anthropogenic activities will have on regional air pollution and understanding the connections to Arctic climate. Trace gas and aerosol concentrations in pollution plumes were measured, including emissions from different ship types and several offshore extraction facilities. Emissions originating from industrial activities (smelting) on the Kola Peninsula were also sampled. In addition, pollution plumes originating from Siberian biomass burning were probed in order to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In the near future these measurements will be combined with model simulations to quantify the influence of local anthropogenic activities on Arctic composition. Here the authors present the scientific objectives of the ACCESS aircraft experiment and the the meteorological conditions during the campaign, and they highlight first scientific results from the experiment.

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Sarah J. Doherty, Stephan Bojinski, Ann Henderson-Sellers, Kevin Noone, David Goodrich, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, John A. Church, Kathy A. Hibbard, Thomas R. Karl, Lucka Kajfez-Bogataj, Amanda H. Lynch, David E. Parker, I. Colin Prentice, Venkatachalam Ramaswamy, Roger W. Saunders, Mark Stafford Smith, Konrad Steffen, Thomas F. Stocker, Peter W. Thorne, Kevin E. Trenberth, Michel M. Verstraete, and Francis W. Zwiers

The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that global warming is “unequivocal” and that most of the observed increase since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, with discernible human influences on ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes, wind patterns, and other physical and biological indicators, impacting both socioeconomic and ecological systems. It is now clear that we are committed to some level of global climate change, and it is imperative that this be considered when planning future climate research and observational strategies. The Global Climate Observing System program (GCOS), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) therefore initiated a process to summarize the lessons learned through AR4 Working Groups I and II and to identify a set of high-priority modeling and observational needs. Two classes of recommendations emerged. First is the need to improve climate models, observational and climate monitoring systems, and our understanding of key processes. Second, the framework for climate research and observations must be extended to document impacts and to guide adaptation and mitigation efforts. Research and observational strategies specifically aimed at improving our ability to predict and understand impacts, adaptive capacity, and societal and ecosystem vulnerabilities will serve both purposes and are the subject of the specific recommendations made in this paper.

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

Abstract

The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol–cloud interactions, chemistry–climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future—for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth’s surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of the twentieth century warm in CM3 by 0.32°C relative to 1881–1920. The Climate Research Unit (CRU) and Goddard Institute for Space Studies analyses of observations show warming of 0.56° and 0.52°C, respectively, over this period. CM3 includes anthropogenic cooling by aerosol–cloud interactions, and its warming by the late twentieth century is somewhat less realistic than in CM2.1, which warmed 0.66°C but did not include aerosol–cloud interactions. The improved simulation of the direct aerosol effect (apparent in surface clear-sky downward radiation) in CM3 evidently acts in concert with its simulation of cloud–aerosol interactions to limit greenhouse gas warming.

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J. M. Flores, G. Bourdin, O. Altaratz, M. Trainic, N. Lang-Yona, E. Dzimban, S. Steinau, F. Tettich, S. Planes, D. Allemand, S. Agostini, B. Banaigs, E. Boissin, E. Boss, E. Douville, D. Forcioli, P. Furla, P. E. Galand, M. Sullivan, É. Gilson, F. Lombard, C. Moulin, S. Pesant, J. Poulain, S. Reynaud, S. Romac, S. Sunagawa, O. P. Thomas, R. Troublé, C. de Vargas, R. Vega Thurber, C. R. Voolstra, P. Wincker, D. Zoccola, C. Bowler, G. Gorsky, Y. Rudich, A. Vardi, and I. Koren
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J. M. Flores, G. Bourdin, O. Altaratz, M. Trainic, N. Lang-Yona, E. Dzimban, S. Steinau, F. Tettich, S. Planes, D. Allemand, S. Agostini, B. Banaigs, E. Boissin, E. Boss, E. Douville, D. Forcioli, P. Furla, P. E. Galand, M. B. Sullivan, É. Gilson, F. Lombard, C. Moulin, S. Pesant, J. Poulain, S. Reynaud, S. Romac, S. Sunagawa, O. P. Thomas, R. Troublé, C. de Vargas, R. Vega Thurber, C. R. Voolstra, P. Wincker, D. Zoccola, C. Bowler, G. Gorsky, Y. Rudich, A. Vardi, and I. Koren

Abstract

Marine aerosols play a significant role in the global radiative budget, in clouds’ processes, and in the chemistry of the marine atmosphere. There is a critical need to better understand their production mechanisms, composition, chemical properties, and the contribution of ocean-derived biogenic matter to their mass and number concentration. Here we present an overview of a new dataset of in situ measurements of marine aerosols conducted over the 2.5-yr Tara Pacific Expedition over 110,000 km across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Preliminary results are presented here to describe the new dataset that will be built using this novel set of measurements. It will characterize marine aerosols properties in detail and will open a new window to study the marine aerosol link to the water properties and environmental conditions.

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J. K. Andersen, Liss M. Andreassen, Emily H. Baker, Thomas J. Ballinger, Logan T. Berner, Germar H. Bernhard, Uma S. Bhatt, Jarle W. Bjerke, Jason E. Box, L. Britt, R. Brown, David Burgess, John Cappelen, Hanne H. Christiansen, B. Decharme, C. Derksen, D. S. Drozdov, Howard E. Epstein, L. M. Farquharson, Sinead L. Farrell, Robert S. Fausto, Xavier Fettweis, Vitali E. Fioletov, Bruce C. Forbes, Gerald V. Frost, Sebastian Gerland, Scott J. Goetz, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Edward Hanna, Inger Hanssen-Bauer, Stefan Hendricks, Iolanda Ialongo, K. Isaksen, Bjørn Johnsen, L. Kaleschke, A. L. Kholodov, Seong-Joong Kim, Jack Kohler, Zachary Labe, Carol Ladd, Kaisa Lakkala, Mark J. Lara, Bryant Loomis, Bartłomiej Luks, K. Luojus, Matthew J. Macander, G. V. Malkova, Kenneth D. Mankoff, Gloria L. Manney, J. M. Marsh, Walt Meier, Twila A. Moon, Thomas Mote, L. Mudryk, F. J. Mueter, Rolf Müller, K. E. Nyland, Shad O’Neel, James E. Overland, Don Perovich, Gareth K. Phoenix, Martha K. Raynolds, C. H. Reijmer, Robert Ricker, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, E. A. G. Schuur, Martin Sharp, Nikolai I. Shiklomanov, C. J. P. P. Smeets, Sharon L. Smith, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Marco Tedesco, Richard L. Thoman, J. T. Thorson, X. Tian-Kunze, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Hans Tømmervik, Mark Tschudi, Dirk van As, R. S. W. van de Wal, Donald A. Walker, John E. Walsh, Muyin Wang, Melinda Webster, Øyvind Winton, Gabriel J. Wolken, K. Wood, Bert Wouters, and S. Zador
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