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  • Author or Editor: F. Karbou x
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D. Wang, C. Prigent, L. Kilic, S. Fox, C. Harlow, C. Jimenez, F. Aires, C. Grassotti, and F. Karbou

Abstract

The Tool to Estimate Land Surface Emissivity from Microwave to Submillimeter Waves (TELSEM2) is linked to a climatology of monthly emissivity estimates and provides a parameterization of the surface emissivity up to 700 GHz, in the framework of the preparation for the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) on board the Meteorological Operational Satellite Second Generation (MetOp-SG). It is an updated version of the Tool to Estimate Land Surface Emissivities at Microwave Frequencies (TELSEM; ). This study presents the parameterization of continental snow and ice and sea ice emissivities in TELSEM2. It relies upon satellite-derived emissivities up to 200 GHz, and it is anchored to the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) TELSEM monthly climatology dataset (19–85 GHz). Emissivities from Météo-France and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at frequencies up to 190 GHz were used, calculated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) observations. TELSEM2 has been evaluated up to 325 GHz with the observations of the International Submillimeter Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) and the Microwave Airborne Radiometer Scanning System (MARSS), which were operated on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft during the Cold-Air Outbreak and Submillimeter Ice Cloud Study (COSMICS) campaign over Greenland. Above continental snow and ice, TELSEM2 is very consistent with the aircraft estimates in spatially homogeneous regions, especially at 89 and 157 GHz. Over sea ice, the aircraft estimates are very variable spatially and temporally, and the comparisons with the TELSEM2 were not conclusive. TELSEM2 will be distributed in the new version of the RTTOV radiative transfer community code, to be available in 2017.

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C. Faccani, F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, A. Agusti-Panareda, F. Karbou, P. Moll, J.-P. Lafore, M. Nuret, F. Hdidou, and O. Bock

Abstract

The high vertical density soundings recorded during the 2006 African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) campaign are assimilated into the French numerical weather prediction Action de Recherche Petite Echelle Grande Echelle (ARPEGE) four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) system, with and without a bias correction for relative humidity. Four different experiments are carried out to assess the impacts of the added observations. The analyses and forecasts from these different scenarios are evaluated over western Africa. For the full experiment using all data together with a bias correction, the humidity analysis is in better agreement with surface observations and independent GPS observations than it was for the other experiments. AMMA data also improve the African easterly jet (AEJ) on its southeasterly side, and when they are used with an appropriate bias correction, the daily and monthly averaged precipitation results are in relatively good agreement with the satellite-based precipitation estimates. Forecast scores are computed with respect to surface observations, radiosondes, and analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The positive impacts of additional radiosonde observations (with a relevant bias correction) are found to propagate downstream with a positive impact over Europe at the 2–3-day forecast range.

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