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  • Author or Editor: Fabiano Oyafuso x
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Cheng Li, Andrew P. Ingersoll, and Fabiano Oyafuso


A new formula is derived for calculating the moist adiabatic temperature profile of an atmosphere consisting of ideal gases with multiple condensing species. This expression unifies various formulas published in the literature and can be generalized to account for chemical reactions. Unlike previous methods, it converges to machine precision independent of mesh size. It accounts for any ratio of condensable vapors to dry gas, from zero to infinity, and for variable heat capacities as a function of temperature. Because the derivation is generic, the new formula is not only applicable to planetary atmospheres in the solar system but also to hot Jupiters and brown dwarfs in which a variety of alkali metals, silicates, and exotic materials condense. It is demonstrated that even though the vapors are ideal gases, they interact in their effects on the moist adiabatic lapse rate. Finally, the authors apply the new thermodynamic model to study the effects of downdrafts on the distribution of minor constituents and the thermal profile in the Galileo probe hot spot. The authors find that the Galileo probe measurements can be interpreted as a strong downdraft that displaces an air parcel from the 1-bar to the 4-bar level (1 bar = 100 000 Pa).

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